Vuosi 1982 Suomen ulkopolitiikassa
Acting President Mauno Koivisto held a New Year's Speech in which he noted that the Madrid Follow-Up Conference on the CSFE required that all parties show political will and readiness to compromise for the Final Act formulated by the neutral countries to lead to an acceptable result. In speaking on the practice of foreign policy, President Koivisto emphasized the need for consideration in international issues, because that ensures best the possibilities for working for peace and just development. This in turn requires from the Finnish people that they are internally unanimous.
Mr Kalevi Sorsa, Chairman of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, led the visit by the Disarmament Council of the Socialist International to Moscow. The Council met President Leonid Brezhnev, Secretary General of the CP5U. The discussions dealt with the Soviet views on the present stage of the disarmament talks and the new Soviet proposal for decreasing the number of middle range missiles in Europe to one third of the present number by 1990.
A meeting of the Nordic conservative parties was held in Helsinki. The host was Mr Ilkka Suominen, Chairman of the National Coalition Party of Finland.
A delegation of the Finnish Communist Party attended the Congress of the French Communist Party.
A delegation led by the Chairman of the Fenno-Soviet Economic Commission, Mr Ahti Karjalainen, visited Moscow in order to discuss the development of the bilateral economic cooperation with the Soviet Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev The discussions were a sequel to a meeting held in Helsinki in December The issues discussed included the balancing of the Fenno-Soviet trade and a principle decision was reached on the construction of a factory of special train carriages in Otanmäki and Mustavaara, with an annual production of 3000—4000 carriages for the Soviet market.
The presidential candidate of the Finnish People's Democratic League, FPDL (SKDL) Kalevi Kivistö, underlined in a speech he gave the important contribution made by the organization he represents and its predecessors to the development of the Finnish foreign policy line since Independence.
The Centre Party (CP) presidential candidate, Johannes Virolainen, discussed the tasks facing the President after the Election. According to him, the most important task is to continue President Kekkonen's foreign policy line, which is based on the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, co-operation between Finland and the Soviet Union and good permanent contacts with the other Nordic Countries. As regards international activity, our country must work for disarmament and detente as well as help the Third World by increasing the development aid.
The President of the Soviet Union and Secretary General of the Soviet Communist Party, Leonid Brezhnev, sent a telegram to President Kekkonen and to Acting President Mauno Koivisto thanking them for their congratulation on his 75th birthday.
A meeting of the CSCE delegations of Finland and the Soviet Union was held in Helsinki. The discussions dealt with the effect of the situation in Poland on the CSCE follow-up meeting reconvening in Madrid in February and with the open issues in the draft for a Final Act submitted by the non-aligned and neutral countries.
The presidential candidate of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), Mauno Koivisto, said that the most important task of the future President will be to maintain good relations with our neighbours, the Soviet Union and the Nordic countries, because that ensures our credibility also in international contexts. According to Mr Koivisto, the FCMA Treaty is a well-working entity in its present form and its extension will have to be considered in the near future. One central task for the future governments will be to increase our development aid despite the slow rate of the Finnish economy.
Negotiations on the use of the Finnish development aid in Tanzania, Zambia, Kenya, Egypt, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in 1982—84 were concluded. Over 850 million marks will be used for the projects to be undertaken in these countries during that time. In 1982, the development aid consisted of 720 million marks, or 0.32 per cent of the GNP. The goal of 0.7 per cent of the GNP would presuppose an annual increase of 170—200 million marks.
The Finnish Television organized a presidential election debate in which all the eight candidates participated. They all emphasized their will as eventual presidents to follow the Paasikivi-Kekkonen foreign policy line.
The Election of the Electorial College to elect the President of the Republic took place. The voting rate was 86.6 per cent. Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto received the most votes, 43.3 per cent, which meant 144 electors. The National Coalition Party candidate Harri Holkeri had 18.7 per cent and 58 electors and the Centre Party candidate, Speaker Johannes Virolainen 16.8 per cent and 53 electors. The presidential candidate of the Finnish People's Democratic League, Kalevi Kivistö, had 32 electors with his 11.0 per cent of the votes. The candidate of the Swedish People's Party of Finland (SPPF), Jan-Magnus Jansson had 3.8 per cent of the votes and 11 electors, the Liberal Party candidate. Mrs Helvi Sipilä and the Rural Party's (RP) Veikko Vennamo both got one elector with their 1.8 and 2.3 per cent of the votes, respectively. The candidates of the Christian League of Finland and the Constitutional Conservative Party had no electors.
An agreement on Scientific, Economic and Technological Cooperation between Finland and Algeria was signed.
A meeting of delegates of the Peace Committee of Finland was held in Helsinki. The final statement of the meeting states that the establishment of a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone is one of the central goals of the movement. Mr Paavo Rintala, author, was re-elected chairman.
A meeting of the leaders of Nordic centre parties was held in Sweden. The host was Minister Thorbjörn Fälldin, leader of the Swedish Centre Party. The Finnish participants were Paavo Väyrynen, Chairman of the Centre Party and Pär Stenbäck, Chairman of the Swedish People's Party of Finland.
The National Coalition Party suggested that the FCMA Treaty be extended in the near future. The extension would ensure the basic course of the Fenno-Soviet relations long into the future.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs proposed that the development aid be increased by 200 million marks. The development aid for the year 1983 would thus be some 920 million marks.
In his Inauguration Speech to the Parliament, President Mauno Koivisto emphasized his task in taking care of our relations with other countries. According to him, it is essential to follow the line established by Presidents J. K. Paasikivi and Urho Kekkonen. The most important task is to consolidate the good neighbourly relations with the Soviet Union based on the FCMA Treaty, to continue Nordic cooperation on the traditional basis, and to ensure that the relations we have with other countries remain good. President Koivisto assured that he will do all for keeping up the international prestige of the Finnish policy of neutrality.
In a telegram sent by President Brezhnev to congratulate Mr Koivisto on being elected President, President Brezhnev expressed his confidence in further development of the good Fenno-Soviet relations during Mauno Koivisto's Presidency and underlined the significance of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance in the maintenance the Fenno-Soviet relations.
Dr Mauno Koivisto was elected President of the Republic of Finland for the next six years. He received 167 votes, an absolute majority, in the first round. Mr Harri Holkeri, an Executive in the Bank of Finland, had 58 votes, Speaker Johannes Virolainen 53, Minister Kalevi Kivistö and Mr Jan-Magnus Jansson, Editor-in- Chief, both had 11 and Mrs Helvi Sipilä, Attorney at Law, had one vote.
In the Closing Ceremony of the 1981 Parliament, President Mauno Koivisto stated that the foreign political status of Finland has remained good in spite of increasing international tensions. He thanked President Kekkonen for his life's work in developing the country's foreign policy line and noted that it is essential that it be followed also in the future.
In his address at the opening ceremony of the B3th Defence Course, The Commanding General of the Finnish Defence Forces, Gen. Lauri Sutela said that although the FMCA Treaty prevents the use of Finnish territory in an attack by its mere existence, it also contains a clear defence obligation, for which our country bears the responsibility alone. According to Gen. Sutela, it is understandable that people feel concerned about nuclear weapons but it is misleading to compare the equipment acquisition of our Defence Forces with the actions of the nuclear states, as people opposing acquisitions have done.
The Chairman of the Finnish CSCE delegation Mr Richard Muller stated that the draft for a Final Act formulated by the non-aligned and neutral countries has support despite the increasing tensions in the international situation and the conflicts in the CSCE follow-up caused by the situation in Poland.
In his speech at the Opening Ceremonies of the 1982 Parliament, President Mauno Koivisto discussed the increasing inter-dependence of countries also in the field of security policy. He therefore hoped for development in disarmament talks and said that the continuation of the CSCE process must be ensured to guarantee the vital interests of Europe.
In his address at the Urgent Special Session on Golan, Mr Ilkka Pastinen the Permanent Finnish Representative in the UN said that the Finnish Government considered the decision of the Israeli government to incorporate the Golan Hills into Israel to be not only illegal but a serious new hindrance to the struggle for peace in the Middle East.
The UN general Assembly passed a resolution calling upon the Member States to sever all ties with Israel because of its decision to incorporate the Golan Hills into Israel. Finland, like all the Nordic States, voted against the resolution.
The Percentage Movement Action Group presented an initiative to the Parliament demanding that the Government endorse a schedule of increasing the development aid gradually to 0.7 per cent of the GNP by 1985.
A scientific-technological cooperation programme for 1982-1983 between GKAE, the State Commission on the use of atomic energy of the Soviet Union and the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry was signed by I. G. Morozov, Deputy Chairman of GKAE, and Minister of Trade and Industry Pirkko Työläjärvi. The programme consists of cooperation in research and exchange of experts and information.
The Ministers of Industry and Energy of the five Nordic Countries convened in Helsinki. They discussed exploitation of the gas reserves in Northern Norway and the possibilities of the other Nordic countries to exploit the gas if a gas pipe is built from the north to Central Europe.
A meeting between Finnish and Swedish ministers was held in Stockholm to discuss the situation of the Finns in Sweden. The Finnish participants were Minister of Education Pär Stenbäck, Minister of Labour Jouko Kajanoja and Minister of Social Welfare and Health Katri-Helena Eskelinen. They wanted to know if Sweden is prepared to treat the Finns in Sweden as a Nordic minority and to recognize its special status as compared with the other emigrant groups. They also emphasized the significance of Finnish education to the Finns in Sweden and discussed labour markets in Finland and Sweden and the emigration inherent in them.
The Finnish Peace Union, the Finnish UNICEF, the Red Cross and the Church's Foreign Aid made a proposal on a Bill to the parliamentary groups of all the parties; according to it donations to development aid and humanitarian work should be made deductable in taxation.
The Follow-Up Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe convened in Madrid, with no consensus on a commonly acceptable Final Act. The reason for this was that the US and the NATO countries refused to negotiate on new proposals on lessening the existing tensions as long as there was a declared state of war in Poland. On March 2 the delegations decided to adjourn the meeting until November 9 and to have negotiations on the contentious issues in the meanwhile.
Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa predicted that the extension of the FCMA Treaty in its present form will be actual in the near future.
Representatives from all the Nordic countries but Denmark presented a proposal to the Nordic Council for multilateral cooperation in radio and television activities, after Denmark had rejected possible cooperation.
The Commission on the Protection of the Baltic Maritime Environment convened in Helsinki. All the Baltic Countries were represented at the meeting.
Dag Anckar, Professor of Political Science at Åbo Akademi, stated in a seminar on Nordic security organized by the Swedish Institute of International Affairs that the military articles of the FCMA Treaty ought to be repealed. According to him, they nullify the Finnish neutrality and do not prevent the possibility of an attack against the Soviet Union through Finland. According to Professor Anckar, well-equipped Defence Forces and Swedish type policy of neutrality guarantee our neutrality best.
The Wärtsilä Corporation received a shipbuilding order worth 700 million marks from the English P & 0 Cruises.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs stated that Professor Dag Anckar's suggestion for repealing the FCMA Treaty has to be seen as "private academic thinking”. The FCMA Treaty is and will be a cornerstone of Finnish foreign policy and its existence is in Finland's interests.
President Mauno Koivisto appointed a new Cabinet. The Prime Minister post went to Kalevi Sorsa (SDP), Minister of Finance was Ahti Pekkala (CP), Minister for Foreign Affairs Pär Stenbäck (SPPF), Minister for Foreign Trade Esko Rekola (nonpartisan) and Minister of Defence Juhani Saukkonen (CP). In his address to the new Cabinet, President Koivisto hoped that it would show livelier foreign political activity and that the Cabinet would take stands in international questions when need be.
Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck thinks that Finland did not act against her principles in voting against the Golan resolution. Mr Stenbäck gave the statement in answer to a question put down during the Parliamentary question hour by Mr Ensio Laine, who was of the opinion that the Finnish vote was in conflict with Resolution 242 of the Security Council.
The FPDL Parliamentary group presented a memorandum to Speaker Johannes Virolainen suggesting that a Finnish Parliamentary delegation be sent to El Salvador and possibly to other Central American countries to look into the violations of human rights taking place in these countries.
The 30th session of the Nordic Council was held in Helsinki. Fifty six ministers participated in the session, among others all the Nordic Prime Ministers. Mrs Elsi Hetemäki-Olander, a member of Finnish Parliament acted as Chairman. Economic cooperation was regarded as the most important issue in the discussions. Nordic cooperation in radio and television broadcasting will be studied by the four remaining countries after Denmark refused the cooperation. The agreement on co-Nordic labour market was revised. Efforts will be made arrive at uniform legislation on narcotics. On the last day the secretariat of the Council discussed a proposal for a seminar on a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Nordic area to be arranged outside the Nordic Council activity.
The UN Youth and Students' Association in Finland arranged an international youth disarmament seminar in Helsinki. In his address at the Opening Ceremonies of the Seminar, Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa said that the state of disarmament development is alarming because of the tensions in the Great Power relations.
A meeting of the Executive of the Nordic Federation of Trade Unions was held in Helsinki. The final statement issued dealt with the effect of Nordic economies on the employment in the area and condemned the imprisonment of Turkish trade union members.
An agreement on co-Nordic labour Market developed on the basis of the agreement of 1954 was signed in Copenhagen. The aim of the agreement is to have free movement of labour force and full employment in the Nordic area.
Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa granted an interview to the Swedish daily Svenska Dagbladet. He estimated the possibilities of detente to be poor as long as Ronald Reagan is President of the United States. According to Mr Sorsa, Finland can act as a bridge-builder between the East and the West and promote President Kekkonen's plans for a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone.
President Koivisto paid an unofficial work visit to the Soviet Union. His party included Minister for Foreign Affairs Pär Stenbäck and Mr Ahti Karjalainen, governor of the Bank of Finland. In a speech held in Moscow, President Koivisto underlined the continuity of the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line on the basis of the FCMA Treaty and the fact that the Treaty is in the interests of both Finland and the Soviet Union. It also stabilizes the overall situation in the Nordic area and has a wider, international significance. President Brezhnev both considered the discussions a good basis for developing cooperation between the two countries and expressed his confidence that Finnish foreign political line will change as a result of the change in the person of the President.
A delegation of the Peace Union of Finland visited Moscow, led by Mrs Pirkko Työläjärvi, Chairman of the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Commission.
A meeting of the representatives of the Soviet Central Organization of Trade Unions VZSPS was attended by the Chairman of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions, Pertti Viinanen, the Chairman of the Central Organization of Salaried Employees, Matti Kinnunen, the Chairman of the Federation of Finnish Technical Employees, Jorma Reini, and the Chairman of Akava (Federation of Academic Employees), Samuli Apajalahti.
Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck participated in a meeting of the Nordic Foreign Ministers in Iceland.
A meeting of the Nordic Ministers of Trade and Industry, Communications and Culture in Stockholm decided to continue the development of a Co-Nordic television and radio satellite, although Denmark had retired from the venture. The Finnish representatives were Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck, of Culture and Sciences Kaarina Suonio and Minister of Communications Jarmo Wahlström.
The Finnish Committee for European Security (STETE) presented an international petition for peace to Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck. The International Committee for European Security and Co-operation also presented its petition which called for political will from the CSCE countries to end the arms race and to maintain dialogue in order to promote the undertaking for a European disarmament conference.
The Soviet Deputy Prime Minister and Chairman of the Soviet Union-Finland Society, Mr Nikolai Talyzin, visited Finland and attended the 34th Anniversary Celebration of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance on April 5. In his address Mr Talyzin said that President Koivisto's visit to the Soviet Union had continued the tradition of personal meetings of the two countries' heads of state, which has had a notable significance for the development of friendly relations.
The delegation of the Finland-Soviet Union Society led by Minister of Social Welfare and Health Jacob Söderman travelled to Moscow to attend the 34th Anniversary Celebrations of the FCMA Treaty.
The delegation of the Finland-Soviet Union Society led by Minister of Social Welfare and Health Jacob Söderman travelled to Moscow to attend the 34th Anniversary Celebrations of the FCMA Treaty.
The National Coalition Party issued a statement on the significance of the FCMA Treaty to Finland. The Treaty is a cornerstone of the active and peace-oriented policy of neutrality and the entity it forms is a viable basis for the direction of our foreign policy.
President Mauno Koivisto gave an interview to the Swedish Radio and Television. He said that it is early to define in detail the implementation of the plan for a Nordic nuclear-weapon free zone. According to him, Finnish foreign policy active enough; the application of the activity depends on the global situation and on the development of the Great Power relations.
The Centre Party held its annual FCMA seminar. Chairman Paavo Väyrynen said that the Treaty is correct in its present form and there is no need for changes. According to Mr Väyrynen, the Treaty will be extended in good time before it expires, at a time agreed on by both parties to the Treaty.
A delegation of the Finnish Parliament participated in the Meeting of IPU in Lagos, Nigeria. Before the meeting the delegation made a three-day Visit to Morocco and met representatives of Moroccan Parliament and the Foreign Minister of Morocco.
A Fenno-Soviet meeting of peace defenders was held in Moscow.
Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck met the British Ambassador in Helsinki and said that Finland supports the UN Security Council Resolution of April 3 1982 on the Falklands conflict and hopes that the parties to the conflict will heed the Resolution.
A Peace Train departing from
Helsinki travelled all over the country. Some hundred artists spoke and performed for Nordic nuclear- weapon-free zone in the places the train stopped.
A peace conference of the Swedish speaking people in
Finland was held in
Turku. Professor Göran von Bonsdorff stated in his Opening Speech that the aim of the Peace Movement is to make states avoid violence in their relations with other countries. Minister Jacob Söderman, who represented the State at the meeting, suggested that a co-Nordic discussion meeting be held for parliamentary representatives on the nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Nordic area.
A delegation of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK), led by Chairman Pertti Viinanen, participated in the Conference of the Federation of European Trade Unions in The Hague.
The Physicians for Social Responsibility commission presented a petition against nuclear war signed by physicians to President Mauno Koivisto, Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa and Speaker Johannes Virolainen.
Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa participated in Stockholm in a panel discussion of the Swedish Arbetarrörelsens Fredsiorum (the peace forum of the labour movement). He said that if states gave a pledge that they will refrain from first strike with nuclear weapons, there would be no problems with regard to the limitation of use. He stated that it should be possible to agree on refraining from the first use of nuclear weapons and from the threat of their use on non-nuclear states without complicated negotiations. These kinds of agreements might open new possibilities for negotiations in the field of the ordinary arms control, he emphasized.
Minister of Defence Juhani Saukkonen made an inspection tour to the Finnish sections of the UN Control Forces at Golan and of the UN Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus.
An agreement with Norway on common fishing rules for the Teno River fishing district and an agreement on changes in the rules connected with it.
A Fenno-Soviet scientific technological cooperation programme for the exploitation of Soviet oil and gas resources in the Northern Waters was signed.
The Finnish People's Democratic League stated that they oppose the appropriation for acquisition of equipment from the Soviet Union included in the additional budget. It is indispensable that the Fenno-Soviet trade be balanced, but first there has to be an overall study made to find out if it is possible to increase the import of natural gas by extending the gas pipe to the Helsinki area, argued the FPDL.
At the Special Session on the Palestinian Question, Mr Ilkka Pastinen, the Finnish UN Ambassador, presented the appeal of the Finnish government to all the parties to the Middle East conflict to avoid force and violations of the Lebanese borders.
The Soviet Deputy Foreign Trade Minister A.N. Manzhulo participated in Helsinki in extraordinary negotiation on the balancing of the Fenno-Soviet trade. New import objects were discussed in the negotiations.
President Mauno Koivisto and Mrs Tellervo Koivisto made their first official state visit to Sweden on the invitation of King Charles XVI Gustav and Oueen Silvia. In his speech President Koivisto emphasized the historical background to the present good relations. The common background has created a sense of affinity between the two countries He also negotiated with Prime Minister Thorbjörn Fälldin.
A Centre Party delegation, led by Chairman Paavo Väyrynen, visited the Soviet Union. Mr Väyrynen met Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. They discussed, among other things, the possibility of Finland acting as host for a meeting of the Presidents of the Soviet Union and the United States.
A meeting of the cooperation committee of the Finnish Employers' Confederation and the French Confederation of Industry and Employers was held in Paris.
According to an opinion poll ordered by four parties, 41 per cent of the Finns worry about the threat of war. One year earlier the corresponding figure was 31 and in 1978 8 per cent.
The Peace Union of Finland discussed the second UN Special Session on Disarmament in its spring meeting and presented to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs its statement on it. According to the statement, the significance of international diplomacy should not be overemphasized. The emphasis should be put on the domestic activity within states and on popular opinion. Finland should make efforts to promote concrete actions for implementing disarmament.
Finland and the other Nordic countries issued a statement on the Falklands/Las Malvinas crisis. The Nordic countries expressed their support to the UN Secretary General in his endeavour to put an end to the military actions.
A Finnish Communist Party delegation, led by Chairman Aarne Saarinen, visited Moscow at the invitation of the CPSU, which was represented by Arvid Pelshe and Grigori Romanov, members of the Politbureau. The discussions dealt with Fenno-Soviet cooperation and international issues.
Representatives of 350 different churches and religious communities participated in an Ecumenical Peace Conference in Moscow, which was organized on Patriarch Pimen's initiative. Archbishop Mikko Juva and the representative of the Othodix Church, Archbishop Paul represented Finland in the Conference.
The Finnish-Saudi Arabian Scientific, Economic and Technological Joint Commission convened in Helsinki The Saudi Arabian delegation was led by Deputy Foreign Minister Abdullah All Reza. The Commission discussed Finnish participation in Saudi Arabian construction and agricultural projects.
The Action Group of the Percentage Movement issued a statement on the activity of the IMF and World Bank in connection with the summit Meeting of these organizations held in Helsinki. The group stated that the World Bank supports in the developing countries projects which keep these countries raw material providers for the industrialized countries and through its own credit policy prevents the developing countries from implementing their own development programmes.
The Temporary Committee of the Wold Bank and the International Monetary Fund convened in Helsinki. The final statement formulated on the basis of the suggestion of the industrialized countries stressed the importance of fighting inflation. The Nordic countries and the developing countries had suggested lowering of the high US rate of interest and increasing of the IMF funds.
Jouko Kajanoja was elected as Chairman of Finnish Communist Party.
The Comission of the Political Centre organized a foreign political seminar in Espoo. Foreign Minister Ola Ullsten rejected the idea of a partial nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Nordic region, because that would only secure the present situation and would in practice only include Finland and Sweden. A partial nuclear weapon-free zone would undo the designs for a non-nuclear Nordic region.
Mr Sean McBride, Chairman of the Special Commision on Disarmament of the International Bureau of Peace and the Geneva Civic Organization visited Finland at the invitation of the Peace Committee of Finland. He gave a lecture on the significance of popular opinion and on the Second Special UN Session on Disarmament.
Wärtsilä signed a commission to build two luxury cruisers worth 300 million marks in all for a Norwegian shipping firm.
Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa gave an interview to the Swedish news agency TT on the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone. According to Mr Sorsa, there is broad and fundamental concordance about the need of such a zone. The starting point for drawing the borders of the zone would be the political borders of the Nordic countries. If the zone were to be extended outside these borders, it would necessitate negotiations with all the parties concerned. At this stage, however, it is too early to go into details. Negotiations between the Nordic countries on the foreign minister level would be the most appropriate according to the Prime Minister.
The Finnish Parliament celebrated its 75th anniversary as a unicameral parliament.
Mr Daniel Ellsberg, an American Peace activist, visited Finland at the invitation of the Finnish Committee of the Hundred.
The Fenno-Soviet Commission on Technical and Scientific Cooperation convened and signed a bilateral long-term programme for cooperation in the natural and political sciences and in the humanities, with chemical and energy research introduced as new fields.
In his address at the 75th anniversary of the unicameral Parliament, President Koivisto discussed the speculations about changes in the foreign political line of the country since the Presidential Elections, which have come up in foreign press. President Koivisto said that there will not be any changes in the basis of the Finnish foreign policy line during his Presidency. Its basic goals are to keep the Nordic area a stable, nuclear-weapon-free zone and to cooperate with our neighbours both in the East and in the West.
Meetings of the Representatives and the Disarmament Council of the Socialist International were held in Helsinki. There were about one hundred participants from 34 different countries, including the British Labour Party Chairman Mr Michael Foot, Mrs Gro Harlem Brunt- land from Norway, the SDP Chairman from the Federal Republic of Germany, Mr Willy Brandt, who chaired the meeting, the Finnish SDP Chairman, Mr Kalevi Sorsa, who is the chairman of the SI Disarmament Committee, and representatives of the Social Democratic Parties of South America. The final statement called upon the Great Powers to organize a high-level meeting on disarmament. Statements were also issued on the situations in Lebanon, the Falkland/Malvinas Islands and Turkey.
A meeting of the party secretaries of the Nordic conservative parties was held in Helsinki; the host was the National Coalition Party of Finland.
The Executive Committee of the European Democratic Union, a cooperation organization of the European conservative parties, convened in Helsinki. Representatives from the National Coalition Party and the Swedish People's Party of Finland participated in the meeting, which prepared the agenda for the EDU chairmen meeting in Paris in July and discussed the controversy of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands and security policy.
Bernard Low, Professor of Cardiology at Harvard and the founder of the Physicians against Nuclear War movement, visited Finland to lecture at the invitation of the Finnish Physicians for Social Responsibility.
A delegation of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, led by Johannes Koikkalainen, Chairman of the SDP Party Council, visited Rumania. They met President Nicolae Ceausescu.
The Nordic Ministers of Defence Convened in Visby, Gotland. The discussions concentrated on the status of the UN Peacekeeping Forces.
The National Coalition Party organized a seminar on Soviet and East-European trade.
A co-Nordic petition for a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone was presented to President Mauno Koivisto. It had been signed by some two and a half million people. It was also presented to Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa and Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck.
The EFTA Council of Ministers convened in Helsinki; Finland was represented by Minister for Foreign Trade and Industry Esko Ollila. The Ministers discussed the increasing protectionism which has lately been in evidence in international trade.
The Swedish People's Party of Finland held its 76th Party Congress in Kemiö. The final statement emphasized the significance of the Peace Movement for the global struggle for peace.
The Finnish UN Association arranged a seminar on ‘Government's and Civic Organizations' Work for Peace — the Same Thing or a Different One?'. The seminar dealt with the present state of the official disarmament policy and the objectives of the Peace Movement.
Meetings of the Executive and the Central Committee of the International Metalworkers' Federation (IMFI were held in Rome. The Finnish Union of Metalworkers was represented by Chairman Sulo Penttilä.
The Political Commission of the Finnish Communist Party demanded activity from the Finnish Government in the Special Session on Disarmament in order to speed up disarmament. At the same time it condemned the aggression by Israel on Southern Lebanon.
The Government of Finland issued a communiqué calling for immediate withdrawal of the Israeli troops from Lebanese territory. At the same time it gave its full support the Resolution passed by the UN Security Council of the same purport.
The Finnish delegation to the UN Second Special Session on disarmament was led by Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa. In his address on behalf of Finland on June 10 he suggested that the overall study on the nuclear-weapon-free zones which was finished in 1975 be updated. He suggested an international agreement on the prevention of a nuclear war based on the agreement signed between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1973. This speech has been published in the Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy 1982.
The Finnish delegation to the Second Special Session on Disarmament of the UN General Assembly was led by Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa, who met the Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, Chancellor Helmut Schmidt of the Federal Republic of Germany and Secretary General Javier Peres de Cuellar. The Finnish delegation consisted of the Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee, representatives of civic organizations and scholars working in the field of international politics.
A long-term trade agreement between Finland and China was signed for 1983—87. According to the agreement a joint commission will be nominated to discuss Fenno-Chinese trade. The agreement was signed by the First Deputy Minister for Foreign Trade Zheng Tuobin from China and Minister for Foreign Trade Esko Rekola from Finland.
The 75th anniversary celebration of the Central Organization of the Finnish Trade Unions was held in Helsinki. Delegations from the corresponding organizations in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and the Soviet Union attended it as guests.
The Workers' Congress of the Nordic Social Democratic Parties and Labour Unions convened in Sandefjord, Norway. The Finnish SDP delegation included Mr Erkki Liikanen, Secretary General of the SOP and Minister of the Interior Matti Ahde. The final statement demanded action for disarmament and the nuclear-weapon-free zone. The Israeli attack on Lebanon was condemned.
The Finnish coast guard vessel Kuikka sent out warning bombs in the Åland Waters to repel a possible submarine from the Finnish territorial waters.
The 59th Party Congress the Centre Party was held in Rovaniemi. Delegations from the Swedish and Norwegian Centre Parties and the Agrarian Parties of Poland, German Democratic Republic and Bulgaria attended the Congress as guests. In its foreign political stand the Centre Party gives its support to the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line in foreign policy, which has guaranteed stable international position for Finland and permanent good relations both with the Soviet union and with the Nordic countries. According to the Centre Party, the present and future foreign policy must work for disarmament and detente and in particular for the improvement of the position of the Third World countries.
The Finland-EC Joint Commission convened in Brussels to study the economic situation on both sides. The Finnish officials called attention to the problems of the import of cheap steel.
A meeting of the Fenno-Soviet Economic Commission was held in Tallinn. The Finnish delegation was led by Ahti Karjalainen Governor of the Bank of Finland and the Soviet delegation was led by Minister Manzhulo It is obvious that the quotas cited in the five-year framework agreement will be exceeded before its end in 1986. Efforts will be made to eliminate the present imbalance in the trade during the present five-year period.
In his address to Parliament Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa said that the arms acquisitions from the Soviet Union proposed in the budget are necessary. He motivated this view with the imbalance of the Fenno-Soviet trade and employment effects.
Mr Ilkka-Christian Björklund, a Finnish Member of Parliament, was elected Secretary General of the Nordic Council for a four-year term.
The SOP Party Commission condemned Israel's attack on Lebanon. The Middle East conflict cannot be solved by military actions, only by guaranteeing national rights to the Palestinians including the right to establish their own state and by safeguarding permanent borders for all the states in the region.
All the Parliamentary groups suggested a comprehensive seminar on the establishment of the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone in a proposal directed to the Finnish Committee for Promoting Security in Europe.
Parliament passed the second additional budget of the year for 1,600 million. Some 450 million marks were allotted in the budget for acquisition of defence equipment from the Soviet Union.
Channel Two of the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation interviewed American peace activist Daniel Ellsberg in a programme on Finnish security policy. According to Mr Ellsberg, nuclear weapons are a threat to Finland and she has no possibilities of surviving a nuclear war fought between the Great Powers in Europe. Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck and Minister of Defence Juhani Saukkonen estimated the nuclear threshold to be higher than Mr Ellsberg let understand and then an army equipped with conventional weapons does have significance in safeguarding territorial integrity.
Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen wrote an article in Helsingin Sanomat in which he gave his view on disarmament systems and their results. The significance of disarmament talks has not decreased despite the stalemate situation because they will be sustained in the long run by the common wish of the Great Powers to avoid a large-scale nuclear war. The treaties signed so far have proved effective and have helped to check armament in the areas they cover. Negotiations are hampered by the creation of new weapons by the development in arms technology. Disarmament talks can be exploited in Great Power politics by striving to make the other side reduce armament. According to Mr Korhonen, the demands of the Peace Movements and disarmaments talks are in conflict: the peace movement demands instant and great changes in armament. These are difficult to realize in practice because there are wide and complicated connections behind armament and disarmament. This turns the talks into slow bargaining processes which show no instant results. This again causes constant criticism within the Peace Movement.
The National Coalition Party Chairman, Mr Ilkka Suominen participated in a seminar held in England by the Conservative group in the European Council. In the presentation he gave, Mr Suominen stated that the Finnish foreign policy line will remain the same despite the change in Presidency.
The Peace Union of Finland organized a Nordic peace camp in Halikko. One of the lecturers was Mr Frank Blackaby, Director of SIPRI. The themes of the camp were Women and the Military Establishment in the Nordic Countries, Arms Export from the Nordic countries, and the Nordic Countries and Nuclear War. It was suggested that a Nordic peace and disarmament conference be organized for parliamentary representatives, peace researchers and peace activists.
The fifth meeting of the chairmen of the European Democratic Union was held in Paris. The Finnish participants were a delegation of the National Coalition Party, led by Chairman Ilkka Suominen, and the Vice Chairman of the Swedish People's Party of Finland, Ingvar S. Melin.
A wide-scale meeting of the END Peace Movement was held in Brussels. There were participants from 23 countries; Finland was represented by the Peace Union of Finland — Association for the UN and the Peace Committee of Finland.
The Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church appealed to the Finnish Government to request Israel from attacking West Beirut because an attack endangers the civilian inhabitants.
The Centre Party held its annual FCMA seminar. Chairman Paavo Väyrynen said that the Treaty is correct in its present form and there is no need for changes. According to Mr Väyrynen, the Treaty will be extended in good time before it expires, at a time agreed on by both parties to the Treaty.
The Government presented a statement calling for the withdrawal Israeli troops from Lebanon and the protection of the civil inhabitants of Beirut to the Israeli Ambassador in Helsinki. The appeal was made public on August 11.
Ambassador Ilkka Pastinen gave the Finnish final address on the closing day of the Special Session on disarmament. According to him, the poor results of the Session are due to external circumstances. The Great Power confrontations reduce the possibilities to implement disarmament, although there is more and more concern at armament and nuclear war in the world. The session ended without reaching concrete plans for disarmament.
A meeting of the Fenno-Czechoslovakian Economic Joint Commission was held in Prague.
Professor Raimo Väyrynen discussed in the daily Suomen Sosialidemokraatti the relation between disarmament diplomacy and peace movements on the basis of Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen's article of June 25. According to Professor Väyrynen it is important to keep up the disarmament negotiation machinery even if it does not bring results. He criticized the view presented by Mr Korhonen according to which the disarmament talks are a technical bargaining process which demands expertise and on which peace movement activity can have no effect.
Finland was nominated to represent the Nordic countries in the IMF work group on development aid which looks into problems relating to the amount, quality and use of development aids.
A Women's Peace March from Stockholm to Minsk in the Soviet Union passed through Finland from Turku to Vainikkala Some 300 persons from the Nordic countries participated in the march which was organized by the Nordic "Women for Peace” organizations and Soviet peace and women's committees.
Jouko Kajanoja Chairman of the Finnish Communist Party, called upon the leaders of Finnish foreign policy to take more definite stands in the Lebanese crisis. In his opinion, this can be done on the basis of UN Security Council resolutions.
Minister for Foreign Affairs Stenbäck stated on the demand the FPDL Chairman Jouko to condemn Israeli power politics Lebanon that Finland supports UN Security Council resolution the matter.
The Finnish Peace Union called upon the Finnish Government and the leaders of the other UN member states to put an end to the genocide of the Palestinian people and to safeguard the rights of the PLO.
The 26th meeting of the International Association of Women was held in Helsinki. There were 180 representatives from all over the World. The Finnish address was given by Mrs Vappu Taipale, Minister of Social Welfare and Health.
The first global conference on aging organized by the UN was held in Vienna; it was attended by the Finnish Minister of Social Welfare and Health, Mrs Marjatta Väänänen.
Mr Jorma Hentilä, Secretary General of the Finnish People's Democratic League demanded that the Finnish Government and foreign policy leaders take a clearer stand on the Israeli Attack on Lebanon.
The International Committee on the Security and Cooperation in Europe issued a statement which underlined the importance of the CSCE Final Act as one of the cornerstones of detente. It was also stated that the recent public demands for peace in Europe and in the United States also promote detente.
The Centre Party Parliamentary group condemned the military aggression by Israel on Lebanon and gave its support to the measures for restoring peace in the Middle East.
The 13th conference on the North Cap Area was held in Rovaniemi, with some 300 participants from Finland, Sweden and Norway. The issues discussed included employment questions and development of cultural cooperation.
Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck took a positive view of the expanding peace movement although he regards popular activity and the official foreign policy as two separate things of different levels, because final results can only be reached through intergovernmental negotiations. According to Mr Stenbäck, there is no conflict in Finland between the governmental policy and the goals of the peace movement as regards work for peace.
Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck told in a press conference that Ministry for Foreign Affairs had the Cabinet's unanimous stand on the necessity of withdrawing Israeli troops from Lebanon of Protecting the civil inhabitants the Israeli Ambassador in Helsinki July 7. The message was kept on a unanimous decision of highest foreign policy leadership, which was criticized in press, others in the leaders in Suomenmaa Ithe main organ of the Centre and Helsingin Sanomat (independent daily) on the 13th and 15th August, respectively It was that the official foreign political stands must be made known to public at the time they are presented.
The Executive of the Central Organization of Trade Unions gave two statements concerning the Finnish development aid and Israel's attack in Lebanon. The development aid should be directed to countries or objects in which the money would serve development in social equality. The Israeli attack on Lebanon was condemned and it was demanded that the troops be withdrawn and the rights of the Palestinian people be recognized.
The League Board of the FPDL gave a statement condemning Israel's attack on Lebanon and demanding that the military actions be discontinued at once. It also demanded that the Finnish Government use sanctions against Israel.
A statement issued by the Executive of the National Coalition Party considers the Israeli attack on Lebanon as a serious violation of the territorial sovereignty of Lebanon.
The FPDL Chairman Kalevi Kivistö thinks that our country should recognize the PLO as the official and legal representative of the Palestinian people.
Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck gave a statement according to which the Finnish Government had been secretive in the Lebanese The message delivered to Israeli Ambassador in Helsinki July was a message presented by a to another in accordance with normal diplomatic practice.
In the summer meeting of the SDP Parliamentary group, Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa condemned Israel's attack on Lebanon and pointed out that Israel is openly disregarding the rules of the international community and the United Nations.
The chairman of the Central Organization of the Soviet Trade Unions VZSPS, Stepan Shalajev led a delegation of the organization at the annual meeting of the Permanent Negotiation Commission of the Central Trade Organizations of Finland and the Soviet Union. A working group was nominated to promote trade and economic cooperation between the two countries.
The deputy of the Permanent Finnish UN Representative, Mr Björn Ekblom gave the Finnish Address at the Urgent UN Special Session on the situation in Middle East. He said that the Israeli actions in Lebanon cannot be justified by the fact that the territorial integrity of Israel has not always been respected.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs proposed that 1000 million marks be appropriated in the 1983 budget for development aid.
At the Urgent Special Session on the Palestinian Question. Finland voted differently from the other Nordic countries, for the resolution suggested by the non-aligned countries. The resolution censures Israel strongly for her attack on Lebanon and for her disregard for the UN Security Council Resolutions.
According to the Finnish explanation of the vote, the resolution has to be seen as an attempt by the UN to find a just and lasting solution to the Middle East question.
Mr Aarne Saarinen gave a speech on the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone at a meeting of Swedish and Finnish Communists in Sweden. According to Mr Saarinen the zone could be established through part solutions, because the Nordic NATO countries do not take a positive stand on the issue. Sweden and Finland can have bilateral negotiations and after that negotiate with the United States and the European nuclear states in order to get guarantees for the non-use of nuclear weapons.
The Central Committee of the Finnish Communist Party issued a statement in which it was a good thing that Finland voted differently from the other Nordic states in the UN Special Session on the Lebanon crisis, i.e. for the resolution passed by the Assembly.
The Christian League of Finland disapproved strongly the Finnish Governments decision to vote against Israel in the United Nations.
President Koivisto gave an interview to the Norwegian daily Dagbladet. According to him, there was no change in foreign policy in connection of the change of President, for the foreign policy attitudes have remained the same, President Koivisto wished that the Cabinet would take a more active part in the management of foreign policy than before. This would not, however, lessen the President's responsibility for foreign policy. The Nordic situation has remained stable because of regional cooperation. These countries should make effort to ameliorate the international situation, which would best be affected under the auspices of the UN. Keeping the Nordic region free from nuclear weapons is felt to be important in all the countries in the region. The exchange of views taking place on foreign minister level is a minor but Positive achievement, President Koivisto stated.
Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck participated in a meeting of the foreign ministers of the non-aligned and neutral CSCE countries. They discussed possibilities of continuing the Madrid CSCE meeting in spite of the high tensions in the Great Power relations.
A meeting of the Nordic Foreign Ministers was held in Helsinki. In a statement issued by the Ministers they condemned the occupation of Lebanon by Israel and Israel's disregard for the resolutions of the Security Council on the question. On Finnish initiative the statement contained an expression of concern at the diminished prestige of the UN as a Peacekeeping organisation in recent international events.
A programme for cultural exchange made with the People's Republic of China came into force.
The Cabinet Foreign Affairs Committee made a principle decision that Finland will receive another 100 Vietnamese refugees.
Mr Max Jakobson, Executive Director, criticized in Suomen Kuvalehti no 36 Finland's voting in the UN Special Session on the Lebanese situation: the goal of the Finnish UN policy is to strengthen the security function of the organization. According to Mr Jakobson, the voting on Lebanon was a moral stand which weakens the credibility of Finland and thus deviates from the foreign policy practice of the country.
Mr Kalevi Kivistö, Chairman of the Finnish People's Democratic League, suggested a referendum on the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone in Stockholm, where he was a guest at a festival of the Swedish Left- Wing Party Communists. If the result of the voting is positive, the Nordic Governments should proclaim the Nordic area nuclear free.
President Mauno Koivisto made an unofficial friendship visit to Hungary at the invitation of Party Leader Janos Kadar and President Pal Losonczi.
A FCP delegation led by Veikko Saarto visited Moscow at the invitation of the Soviet Communist Party.
According to an Opinion poll 93 per cent of the Finns were contented with President Koivisto's way of performing his duties. 87 per cent considered the foreign political situation to be the same as during Dr Kekkonen's Presidency.
According to Under-Secretary of State, Keijo Korhonen Finland did not deviate from her line in her voting on the Lebanese war in the UN General Assembly as Mr Jakobson claimed. The resolution calls for a conference on the conflict in which all the parties concerned would participate. Finland was able to make precisions in the details of the stand and therefore voted differently from the other Nordic countries.
Mr Jorma Hentilä, Secretary General of the FPDL, said in Jyväskylä that there had been changes in Finnish foreign policy lately. According to him, the contents used to come first in the early 1970s, whereas the form and procedures have been emphasized in the previous years. Finnish foreign policy has emphasized national interests instead of acting for international cooperation and peace. Finland should fight more actively against tendency as the tensions increase between the Great Powers. Hentilä took a positive view of Finland's vote for the resolution on Lebanon in the UN.
A Finnish Parliamentary led by Speaker Johannes Virolainen participated in the meeting of the Inter-Parliamentary Union in Rome. In his address on behalf of Finland, Mr Virolainen said that the only way of solving the present difficult International situation is to strengthen the position of the UN. Speaker Virolainen was elected President of the IPU for the next three-year period.
Professor Göran von Borisdorff, Chairman of the Peace Union of Finland was elected Vice President of the International Peace Bureau situated in Geneva.
The US Ambassador in Helsinki, Mr Keith Nyborg gave a speech on the foreign policy line pursued by Finland after the Presidential Elections. According to Mr Nyborg, no change has taken place despite changes in personnel. The peaceful transference of authority shows the good functioning of the Finnish State institutions, according to the Ambassador.
The Cabinet presented its proposal for the 1983 budget to the Parliament. The appropriation in the Foreign Ministry main class was 1.279 million marks or 1.8 per cent of the whole budget. The development aid was put at 919 million marks, which corresponds to 0.37 per cent of the Gross National Product. The proposal included no new recipient countries. An office of disarmament and security is to be established in the Political Division of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Ministry of Defence main class took up 5.0 per cent of the total, 3.947 million marks. Of that sum, 1.100 million was allotted to arms purchases. The increase in the defence appropriation was 19 per cent as Compared to the previous year, which is greater than in any other main class.
President Koivisto participated in the 25-year jubilee of King Olav in Oslo.
Mr Kalevi Kivistö repeated his demand that Finland recognize the PLO as the sole legal representative of the Palestinians.
Mr Jorma Hentilä is of the Opinion that Finland already is the object of a possible nuclear attack and said that the view given by the Third Parliamentary Defence Committee of a nuclear-weapon threat is thus deficient. According to Mr Hentilä, the Committee did not discuss sufficiently the Possibility of Our country being the object of a nuclear attack. The significance of foreign policy increases and that of defence decreases as the threat of nuclear attack becomes more probable.
A statement issued by the work commission of the Executive of the Christian League condemned the mass murders in West Beirut and considered Israel responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the city.
The Cabinet Foreign Affairs Committee discussed an eventual visit to Finland by the PLO Leader Yasser Arafat. It was suggested that Speaker Johannes Virolainen present the invitation.
The Finnish Government condemned the mass murder of Palestinian civilians in Beirut and considered Israel responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the city. The Government offered Finnish Peacekeeping forces for UN use in Beirut.
President Koivisto visited Iceland at the invitation of President Vigdis Finnbogao. The party included among others Minister for Foreign Affairs Pär Stenbäck. In addition to the President the Icelandic negotiators included Prime Minister Gunnar Thoroddsen and Foreign Minister Olafur Johannesson. One of the matters discussed was Nordic cooperation and its continuity.
Speaker Johannes Virolainen informed from Rome, where he was participating in the IPU Meeting, said he was willing to invite the PLO Leader Yasser Arafat to Finland.
President Koivisto gave an interview to the daily Suomenmaa (the main organ of the Centre Party). According to the President, the implementation of the Nordic nuclear- weapon-free zone depends on the mutual understanding between the Soviet Union and the United States and on their Positive view on the matter. The Cabinet decision to vote for the UN General Assembly resolution condemning Israel in August was a deliberated decision which cannot be claimed to be a deviation from the foreign policy line. There was no secretiveness in the presentation of the stand on Lebanon to Israel, which became public in July. As regards procedure, it was purely normal diplomacy.
Negotiations were held in Helsinki, on the balancing of the Fenno-Soviet trade. As the result of these negotiations the credit limit of the bilateral trade was raised to 300 million roubles. The agreement was reached in negotiations between Minister Manzhulo, who was visiting Finland, and the Finnish Minister for Foreign Trade Esko Rekola.
— The SDP Parliamentary group stated in their stand that the PLO could open an office in Finland. They also condemned the mass murder of civilians in Beirut, for which Israel bears the responsibility, according to SOP.
— The FPDL Parliamentary group presented a statement to Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck in which they demanded prompt recognition of the PLO. The recognition of the Organization has been rejected on purely formal grounds, according to the FPDL Parliamentary group.
- The SPPF parliamentary group saw no cause for recognizing the PLO. The recognition would mean deviation from the principle according to which Finland only recognizes independent states.
— The parliamentary group of the Christian League rejected the idea of Inviting the PLO Leader Yasser Arafat to Finland as a guest of the Parliament, as being in conflict with Finland's official foreign policy.
Doctor Eric Chivian, one of the founders of the international Physicians for Social Responsibility, visited Finland and gave lectures. One of his topics was protection of the people in a nuclear war.
The 20th anniversary of the signing of the Saimaa canal lease contract.
Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa told that he had informed Speaker Virolainen in Rome about an eventual invitation to Mr Arafat, after having discussed the matter with President Koivisto. Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck was of the opinion that the Prime Minister had superseded the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in discussions on the invitation. According to Mr Stenbäck, the President had got an impression of the meeting of the Cabinet Foreign Affairs Committee which does not coincide with the view of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs on the matter. According to the Foreign Minister, there was no decision made on an invitation to Mr Arafat, even though the matter was discussed.
The Finnish Executive of the UN Disarmament Week 1982 issued a statement objecting a rise in the defence appropriation. The commission presented a memorandum to the Parliament expressing their concern because the Finnish security policy overemphasizes the development of military defence. This trend became evident in the appropriation for arms acquisition included in the proposal for the additional budget of 1982 and the 19 per cent rise in the defence appropriation included in the 1983 budget.
Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck gave the Finnish address at the UN General Assembly. He considered it important that the prestige and functioning of the UN be enhanced, because the collective security system represented by the organization is vital to small countries like Finland. The constant tensions in Great Power relations, accelerating armament and regional crises all over the world are the reason for the difficulties in reaching solutions by negotiations for example in the CSCE process, the Geneva disarmament talks and SALT negotiations. This makes it the responsibility of all the Member States to work more actively for changing the situation.
The majority of the parliamentary groups saw that it was up to the Speaker to forward an eventual invitation to Mr Arafat. — In the preliminary debate on the 1983 budget, the Minister for Foreign Affairs was criticized for his actions in connection with the discussions on the invitation to Mr Arafat.
Speaker Johannes Virolainen demanded that the Cabinet take a public Stand on the inviting of Mr Yasser Arafat to Finland. According to him the Cabinet must reach unanimity on the procedures before the decision on the actual invitation is made. In Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa's view he had given the President the correct picture of the meeting of the Cabinet Foreign Affairs Committee in where the invitation to Mr Arafat was discussed.
The FCP Central Committee condemned the mass murders of Palestinians in West Beirut and demanded that Israel withdraw from Lebanon and from all the areas occupied in 1967. The FCP demands that a prestigious invitation to Finland sent to the PLO Leader Yasser Arafat.
According to Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck, inviting Mr Arafat is not the task of the Cabinet, because that would mean indirect recognition of the Palestinian Liberation Organization IPLO). Speaker Virolainen is the right person to decide on the invitation of Mr Arafat.
Speaker Virolainen announced that he will not invite the PLO Leader to Finland. He referred to numerous letters he had received from the public opposing the invitation. Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck gave a report on Finnish Middle East policy to the Parliament According to it, our relations with the PLO have not changed, and attempts are being made to develop contacts with all parties to the Middle East crisis.
A delegation of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions led by chairman Pertti Viinanen visited Yugoslavia and Hungary.
The Bank of Finland devaluated the mark by four per cent.
A delegation of the FCP visited Lisbon at the invitation of the Portuguese Communist Party. The delegation was led by Chairman Jouko Kajanoja.
Mr Kalevi Kivistö visited Bulgaria at the invitation of the National Board of the Bulgarian Patriotic Front.
It was said in the leader in Suomen Kuvalehti no 41 that moral stands have become the practice in foreign policy and that the protest policy practiced will undermine the credibility of Finland's policy of neutrality. That would also mean forsaking the life work of President Kekkonen, in which emphasis was on foreign political realism, and consideration of Great Power interests in the practice of Finland's foreign policy. Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck said in Ulkopolitiikka 4/82 that moralizing in foreign policy has not increased significantly, although superficial discussions on persons and superficial phenomena of foreign policy, have been in evidence.
A meeting of the FennoRumanian Scientific, Economic and Technological Joint Commission was held. The discussions dealt with a possible cooperation in the fields of oil refinery, mining and steel industry.
The external value of the Finnish mark was devaluated again by six per cent after Sweden had devaluated the Swedish crown by 16 per cent on October 8. Also the reduction in sales tax on industrial machine and equipment investments was raised to 80 per cent as of the beginning of 1983; it was made permanent like the reduction in sales tax on industrial construction investments. In connection with the devaluation, a price stop until December 13 was introduced and the time for depreciation of productional investments was extended. The sales tax was raised by two percent as of June 1st, 1983.
— The FPDL Ministers were against the devaluation and the support given to industry. Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa regarded the devaluation as Cabinet issue.
President Kojvisto sent a telegram to the President of the Soviet Presidium, Leonid Brezhnev to congratulate him on the occasion of the 65th anniversary of the October Revolution.
Mr Kalevi Kivistö visited the German Democratic Republic at the invitation of the GDR National Front
A meeting of representatives of the CSCE delegations of non-aligned and neutral countries was held in Helsinki. They tried to find a compromise whereby the Final Act of the Madrid meeting could be affected.
The FPDL ministers remained in the Cabinet after the FPDL parliamentary group had been given permission to abstain from voting on the devaluation issues.
On the occasion of the UN Disarmament Week, the FPDL League Board published an appeal for peace. The appeal demanded action against Euromissiles and for a large-scale peace movement in Europe.
A negotiation commission of civic organization was established to act as a cooperation organ in matters concerning development cooperation. The Finnish UN League is to act as the secretariat of the commission.
The Nordic Ministers of Defence convened in Helsinki and discussed among other things the training of the UN Forces.
Näköpiiri no 14 published an article by Mr Kalevi Suomela, Deputy Chairman of the Peace Union of Finland, in which he gave his views on the security political status of our country: the Finnish Army has prepared itself for a war fought with conventional arms, which is of no consequence because a war between the Great Powers would be a nuclear war. The Finnish Army could well be abolished. This would not be in conflict with the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Aid because development in arms technology has lead to a situation in which the Finnish Armed Forces has no strategic weight. Finland is not threatened as much by territorial violations or possible transit of an enemy as by economic, political and social threats to which we should be able to find an answer, said Mr Suomela.
An SDP delegation led by Chairman Kalevi Sorsa visited Moscow. They had discussions with a delegation led by the Secretary and Politburo member of the CPSU Yuri Andropov. Prime Minister Sorsa met Prime Minister Nikolai Tikhonov. A statement issued at the meeting of the delegations presented their common stands on international and Fenno-Soviet issues.
Professor lstvan Kende from Hungary visited Finland at the invitation of the Peace Union of Finland and gave lectures on his research on the wars fought since the Second World War.
The Finnish People's Democratic League proposed that the Government find out the possibilities of organizing a meeting of non-nuclear states with the object of finding ways of promoting the control and limitation of nuclear weapons in general and the control of European nuclear weapons.
The controversy about procedures in excluding Israel from the General Assembly was solved on the basis of a Finnish proposal after a vote. The postponement of the Iranian proposal for rejection was prepared in cooperation with the other Nordic UN delegations.
Some 150 000 marchers took part in the UN Disarmament Week peace marches in 80 different places.
The National Coalition Party organized a seminar on international politics. Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck said in his address that the guarantees given to the Nordic Nuclear- weapon-free zone and the effects of the zone on the Baltic Sea are questions which have to be negotiated, therefore it is not possible to take stands regarding them.
Mr Jouko Kajanoja, Chairman of the Finnish Communist Party visited Moscow. He discussed internal questions of the FCP with representatives of the CPSU.
Ambassador Esko Rajakoski gave the Finnish address on disarmament in the first committee of the UN General Assembly. He said that Finland will propose a resolution to the UN General Assembly for updating the study on nuclear-weapon- free zones completed in 1975. Mr Rajakoski also reported on the project on monitoring chemical weapons initiated by Finland.
The Finnish Government decided to send a peacekeeping battalion of 460 men to Lebanon on control duties.
The Finnish Government decided to keep Egypt, Kenya, Zambia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Vietnam as the development aid programme countries. Some 490 million marks were appropriated for international development aid in 1883. Separate three year appropriation was reserved for Burma, Mozambique Peru and Nicaragua, which had also been suggested as programme countries.
Mr Paavo Väyrynen, Chairman of the Centre Party suggested that the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone be initiated in the North Cap area, which could first form its nucleus and include the most northern parts of Finland, Sweden and Norway and arrangements in the corresponding Soviet areas. According to Mr Väyrynen, the Baltic Sea could be included in the zone later.
A meeting of the Fenno-Moroccocan Joint Commission was held in Rabat, Morocco. Mining, metallurgy, electrification projects and construction of harbour equipment were cited as possible future fields of cooperation.
Mr Jouko Kajanoja visited the German Democratic Republic. He met the GDR Party Leader Erich Honecker and discussed international questions and Party matters with him.
The Executive of the International Metalworkers' Federation held its meeting in Sydney, Australia. The Finnish Union of Metalworkers was represented by Chairman Sulo Penttilä.
President Koivisto gave a statement on the decease of Mr Leonid Brezhnev, the Soviet President and Party Leader. He said that Mr Brezhnev worked for peace and peaceful cooperation and that the basis for the cooperation between the Soviet Union and Finland was appreciation of Finland's Position and mutual trust between the two countries. The personal relationship between President Brezhnev and President Kekkonen helped to build this trust, Mr Koivisto emphasized in his statement.
Condolence telegrams on the death of President Leonid Brezhnev were sent by the Finnish Communist Party, the Social Democratic Party, the Centre Party, the Finnish People's Democratic League and the Finland-Soviet Union Society.
Chairman Jouko Kajanoja and Honorary Chairman Ville Pessi of the Finnish Communist Party attended the funeral of President Leonid Brezhnev in Moscow.
President Mauno Koivisto and Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck visited Moscow and attended President Leonid Brezhnev's funeral on November 15. President Koivisto met briefly the new CPSU Secretary General Yuri Andropov.
The Presidium and the commissions of the Nordic Council convened in Marienhamn, Åland. The chairmen and the cooperation ministers recommended that Greenland, Åland and the Faeroe Islands be represented in the Council.
Foreign Minister Par Stenback gave a speech at the Paasikivi Society of Eastern Uusimaa. According to him the stalemate in multilateral disarmament talks is due to a lack of positive political conditions. Still, the technical preparations and disarmament research are worth while in the long run. Recent proposals for a Nordic nuclear-weapon- free zone can be seen to have furthered the cause and there is reason to assume that the zone will be seen in a more positive light as soon as international relations ameliorate.
The Commanding General of the Finnish Defence Forces, Gen. Lauri Sutela, said in his address at the opening ceremonies of the 86th Defence Course that it is essential for our country to stay outside military conflicts in the event of a gradual build-up of a possible international conflict. The speech is published in Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy 1982.
A delegation of the Finland-Soviet Union Society led by its Chairman Councellor of State Martti Miettunen, participated in an international conference of the Union of the Friendship Societies in Moscow on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the establishment of the USSR.
Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck stated on Speaker Virolainen's visit to Poland that the decision on the trip was made by the Speaker himself, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs was not involved.
President Mauno Koivisto gave a speech at the Annual Meeting of the Paasikivi Society. The speech is published in the Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy 1982.
Mr Jorma Hentilä- Secretary General of the FPDL, gave a lecture on the nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Nordic area. According to him, the zone should be implemented by stages so that Finland and Sweden would proclaim themselves nuclear- weapon-free and endeavour to get international recognition for the zone. After this, the zone should be extended by stages. The states participating in the zone should get negative security guarantees from the United States and the Soviet Union.
A common meeting of four Nordic Communist parties was held in Karjalohja. The discussions covered the international situation and the meeting gave its unanimous support to the establishment of a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone. The FCP delegation was led by Chairman Jouko Kajanoja.
A seminar on the role of international politics in adult education was organized by the Workers' Cultural Federation and the International Federation of Workers' Educational Associations in Helsinki. Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa stated in his address that the recent statements issued by the Great Powers show signs of normalization of relations.
The Arab Peoples' Friendship Society of Finland organized a seminar in the Parliament on the occasion of the UN Palestine Day. The participants included representatives of the PLO.
Minister of Defence Juhani Saukkonen gave an address at the Savonlinna Paasikivi-Society. According to him, the most essential obligations in the FCMA Treaty have not lost any of their significance. Neglection of the capacity to defend the country might lead to a military exploitation of our territory and even to a possible nuclear strike even if Finland were not the primary object of the attack.
A Centre Party delegation led by Chairman Paavo Väyrynen visited Hungary at the invitation of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party. The delegation had discussions with representatives of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party and the Popular Front. On his way home, Mr Väyrynen met Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Gencher, Chairman of the Free Democrats, in the Federal Republic of Germany and Foreign Minister Frigyes Puja in Hungary.
According to Foreign Minister Stenbäck, The Palestinian Liberation Organization cannot establish a political office in Helsinki, only an information office; the establishment of an office is a juridical question involving international law, not a political one. This is the Finnish stand presented to Mr Fuad Bitar, a representative of the PLO, who came to Helsinki to investigate the matter.
Speaker Johannes Virolainen spoke in a meeting organized by the Tampere Paasikivi Society. He emphasized that Parliament has a significant role in foreign policy and saw that the Constitution admits of possibilities for the Parliament to have its say in the formulation of foreign policy.
The Special UN Commission on Disarmament passed the Finnish proposal for updating the study on nuclear-weapon-free zones made in 1973.
The Fenno-South Korean Scientific, Economic and Technological Joint Commission convened in Helsinki. The South Korean delegation was led by Deputy Foreign Minister Chang Soo Lee. The protocol on cooperation signed on December 9 listed trade, industry and construction as fields of co-operation. Mr Lee met Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck and Minister for Foreign Trade Esko Rekola.
The Finnish investigation commission on Kampuchea published its report on what had happened in Kampuchea during the 1970s from the point of view of international law and Great Power politics. The Commission was assisted by five separate investigation groups at the Universities of Helsinki Tampere and Turku and at Åbo Akademie.
Finland and Sweden signed an agreement on maritime rescue operations on the Gulf of Bothnia, the North Sea, the Aland Waters and in the northern parts of the Baltic.
President Mauno Koivisto and the Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Tikhonov opened officially the first phase of Kostamuksha mining combine and town. The Finnish party consisted of representatives of the Government and the Fenno-Soviet Economic Commission. President Koivisto regarded the Kostamuksha combine as economically significant in the Fenno-Soviet trade and said that it is an important employment factor in eastern Finland. Construction will form a part of the bilateral trade also in the future. Imports to Finland should be diversified within the present framework of the cooperation.
The tenth meeting of the Finland-CMEA Cooperation Commission was held in Helsinki. The Finnish delegation was led by Minister for Foreign Trade Esko Rekola. The protocol signed on December 10 included an agreement on recommendations to develop cooperation in MHD (magnetto-hydrodynamic) electricity power plant planning, in traffic, forest industry and chemical industry.
Finland signed the UN Maritime Law Agreement on maritime borders and exploitation of maritime raw materials.
Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen did not see anything new in Mr. Jakobson's suggestions. In discussions between the Nordic foreign ministeries, numerous alternative proposals for Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zones of various kinds and different degrees have been discussed. But the ideas presented by Mr Jakobson serve to show the interest in it felt in different quarters.
The protocol on goods exchange between Finland and the Soviet Union for 1983 was signed in Helsinki. According to it, the total trade exchange will be 38 000 million marks, which means keeping the trade on the 1982 level. The import of energy constitutes 80 per cent of the total imports. The import of machines and equipment is to increase by 45 per cent to some 1000 million marks. Other imports include chemicals and raw materials. The greatest group in Finnish exports is metal industry products some 7500 million marks, which is nearly half of the total exports. The share of the forest industry is some one fifth of the total exports. The agreement includes for the first time a separate quota for project exports, which constitute is per cent of the total. Imports from the Soviet Union will be increased to balance the trade and 300 million roubles will be transferred to a special account. The agreement was signed by Mr Esko Rekola, the Finnish Minister for Foreign Trade, and Mr Nikolai Patolichev, the Soviet Minister for Foreign Trade.
The Fenno-Soviet Economic Commision convened in Helsinki. According to a protocol signed at the meeting, a working group will be nominated to investigate possibilities of increasing the use of natural gas in Finland. Preparations for the next five-year period of 1986— 1990 will begin in 1983. A decision was made to make precisions and to extend the long-view programme to the year 2000. The Protocol was signed by Mr Ahti Karjalainen the Finnish Chairman of the Economic Joint Commission, end Mr AN. Manzhulo, the Soviet Vice-Chairman Trade agreement worth 1800 million marks were signed in connection with the meeting. On the basis of the agreements gas, coal, fertilizers and machines will be imported to Finland.
Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa gave a speech at the closing ceremonies of the 86th Defence Course. According to him, Finland cannot greatly affect the international armament development either by her example or by her defence policy. Finland has international obligations which demand that she has sufficient capacity to defend herself. The estimations made by the Third Parliamentary Defence Committee of the situation in foreign and domestic policy are still valid. Mr Sorsa suggested that a fourth Parliamentary Defence Committee be nominated to discuss security arrangements in the present situation of scarce resources. The only possibility for Finland to have any effect in slowing down the arms race is an active disarmament policy pursued in the UN, CSCE and bilateral diplomacy.
The annual meeting of the Fenno-Soviet Chamber of Commerce was held in Helsinki. In his speech, Mr Esko Rekola, Minister for Foreign Trade, expressed his wish that more precise schedules for payments were agreed on in deals made within the five-year framework, so that problems in the balancing programme could be avoided. Mr. Patolichev the Soviet Minister for Foreign Trade, estimated that the number of construction objects far from Finland will increase in the future.
Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck gave a report on the 37th UN General Assembly. The Assembly had discussed actions for regaining the UN prestige in its attempts to maintain peace and security in the world. No progress was made in the discussions on disarmament because of Great Power confrontations. According to Mr Stenbäck, Finnish actions in the strife over Israel's membership on October 26 did not affect in any way the relations between Finland and the Arab states.
A FCP delegation consisting of Mr Jouko Kajanoja, Chairman, Mr Arvo Aalto, Secretary General, and Mr Taisto Sinisabo attended the 60th Anniversary celebrations of the Soviet State.
Mr Max .Jakobson suggested in an interview with the daily Hufvudstadsbladet that a co-Nordic declaration would be the best way of affecting the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone. The declaration should include a statement of the fact that there are no nuclear weapons in the Nordic area, an assurance that no Nordic country will acquire or allow any other country to bring nuclear weapons into the area, a statement on the Great Powers' announcement in the UN that they will not use nuclear weapons against a country which does not posses them and an assurance that the Nordic countries will do their utmost to prevent the situation from changing. The daily Helsingin Sanomat discussed the proposition in its leader on December 12; it was hailed as a new point of view in an issue formerly held as being dependent on the Great Powers.
— An independent declaration of the Nordic countries as a nuclear- weapon-free zone had already been suggested by Osmo Apunen in Ulkopolitiikka 4/78 and by Allan Rosas in Ulkopolitiikka 2/82 (as a draft for a declaration).
President Koivisto gave an interview to the Soviet Television. According to him, the relations between Finland and the Soviet Union have developed into many-sided and active cooperation on the basis of the FCMA Treaty in the fields of politics, economy, culture and sciences. Finland's Independence Day and the Anniversary of the Revolution are closely linked because the October Revolution made Finland's independence possible as the Bolsheviks recognized it.
Representatives of the SDP, Centre Party and trade unions visited Moscow to attend the 60th anniversary celebrations of the Soviet State.
President Koivisto attended in the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of the Soviet State in Moscow Foreign Minister Stenbäck accompanied him. The President met Mr Andropov with whom he had discussions on Finnish-Soviet relations. In a speech he gave, President Koivisto said that the Finnish-Soviet relations are a good example of cooperation between two countries with different social systems. The FCMA Treaty has guaranteed the continuity of these relations for 35 years.
The Finnish Committee of the Hundred issued a statement on Prime Minister Sorsa's speech. According to them, the view that Finnish domestic activity and popular opinion have no effect on disarmament is wrong. According to the Committee of the Hundred, only the readiness of different nations to take own actions in disarmament ensures results in negotiations.
The FPDL representatives announced that they will vote against the acquisition of weapons proposed in the budget. Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa declared that the vote will lead to the resignation of the Cabinet or at least of the FPDL ministers.
Foreign minister Pär Stenbäck said in an interview with Ydin, an organ for the Peace Movement, that the Finnish foreign policy line is to act in a consistent way and to remain outside Great Power conflicts. This affects the stands taken also on human rights issues, which reflect Great Power conflicts and thus our country has had to take a restrained line on the questions. Although Finland supports implementing the NIEO, the Finnish people are not mentally ready for its implementation.
The Finnish-Soviet Friendship Society held a meeting to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Soviet State. Mr V.M. Sobolev, Soviet Ambassador in Finland, attended the celebrations and emphasized the good relations between Finland and the Soviet Union. Mr Martti Miettunen, Chairmen of the Finland-Soviet Union Society, said that mutual trust increases and cooperation becomes firmer with better and closer knowledge of each other's situation.
Because of the differences of opinion caused by the proposal for arms acquisitions in the new budget, the FPDL resigned from the Cabinet and the posts were filled with representatives of the SDP. The nonpartisan Minister for Foreign Trade, Mr Esko Rekola, was replaced by Mr Arne Berner, a representative of the Liberal Party of Finland.