Vuosi 1985 Suomen ulkopolitiikassa

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1.1.
In his New Year's speech President Mauno Koivisto called on the nuclear powers for a total ban on long-range cruise missiles. He said they were creating instability in the Nordic region, where Finland was working for a nuclear-weapons-free zone. President Koivisto noted that the international atmosphere had improved in 1985. He considered the achievements of the Stockholm Conference positive.
2.1.
Representatives of the Norwegian Ministry of Defence announced that a Soviet tactical cruise missile had flown through Norwegian air space to Finland on 28. 12. 1984. The Norwegians estimated that the missile had been destroyed in the Lake Inarinjärvi area.

The Finnish Defence Forces' GHQ announced that a violation of air space had been detected by radar in Lapland on 28. 12. According to newspaper reports, the object in question had disappeared over Lake lnarinjärvi.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs was informed of the missile incident. It did not comment on the incident at this point but said that it would await a report by the Border Guard.
3.1.
The Border Guard issued a statement according to which an unidentified object had approached Finland at great speed from the east. Aircraft had searched the Lake lnarinjärvi area without noticing anything unusual. Local residents reported that they had heard a bang at the time.
4.1.
The Ministry for Foreign Affairs asked the Finnish ambassadors in the Soviet Union and Norway to make enquiries about the air space violation.

The Soviet Ambassador to Finland V.M. Sobolev expressed to Foreign Minister Väyrynen the Soviet Government's apology about the possible air space violation in Lapland. According to Mr. Sobolev, an aerial target had strayed off course owing to a technical fault during manoeuvres in the Barents Sea.

Foreign Minister Väyrynen announced that Ambassador Sobolev's information on the missile incident was sufficient and that the Ministry for Foreign Affairs regarded the matter as closed.
6.–8.1.
President Koivisto paid an unofficial visit to Sweden. He met Prime Minister Olof Palme and representatives of both government and opposition parties. President Koivisto said that he had been informed about the missile incident only alter his New Year's speech. Internal communication in Finland had revealed shortcomings during the incident, but otherwise the Finnish authorities had acted reasonably well in Mr. Koivisto's view. The Swedish Government expressed their support for President the proposal in Koivisto's New Year's speech about prohibiting long-range cruise missiles. Mr. Koivisto noted that his views and those of the Swedish Government on the submarine incidents in Swedish territorial waters are largely convergent.
7.1.
Non-governmental and missionary organizations commented on the guidelines issued by the Foreign Ministry for their development aid projects. The guidelines require that such projects be in harmony with the recipient countries' economic and community planning. The organizations point out that this requirement prevents support for oppressed groups or liberation movements.

The head of the Air Force, Lieutenant-General Rauno Merio said that Finnish air surveillance had acted according to regulations during the air space violation. Considering the resources available their performance had been quite good.

The Lapland border guard stopped searching the area where the missile had been reported to have crashed.
8.–11.1.
The Finnish-Soviet Intergovernmental Commission for Economic Co-operation met in Helsinki. The delegations were led by the Commission's Finnish chairman Kalevi Sorsa and Soviet Deputy Prime Minister I. Arhipov. The main themes were increasing co-operation in the production sphere and diversifying imports from the Soviet Union. In relation to co-operation in production it was estimated that in the period of the 1986— 90 outline agreement Finnish export projects would be worth around 1.5 billion roubles or 11 billion marks. Finland would import plant valued at 400 million roubles or 3 billion marks. Kemira signed an agreement with the Soviet Union under which it will supply pesticides worth 4 billion marks. The Soviet Union would supply Kamira with raw materials.
9.1.
The Finnish People's Democratic League said that both President Koivisto's New Year's speech and the stray missile in Lapland showed that the party's December 1984 proposal for a committee to deal with security policy issues was still valid. The committee should deliberate the changes that development in nuclear weapon strategies and technology will cause in Finland's security situation.

Parliament discussed the Defence budget for 1986. Social Demo- crate MP Pekka Myllyniemi proposed that a parliamentary defence committee be appointed to survey the general security policy situation. However, there was no need to allocate funds for the Defence Forces. The Chairman of the Parliament Defence Committee Mauri Miettinen (National Coalition Party) wanted the proposed committee to have a wide assignment. The Finnish People's Democratic League supported a widely- based committee, which would, among other things, investigate problems caused by cruise missiles.
11.1.
In an interview in Hufvudstadsbladet Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that the present strained relations between Sweden and the Soviet Union had not affected Finland's position. A crisis between the superpowers would be a threat to Finland. Sea-launched and air— launched cruise missiles did not change the general situation although their introduction would be taken into account in military and political contingency planning.
14.1.
The head of the Defence Forces General Valtanen said that Finnish observations of the missile did not support Norwegian claims that it had been cruise missile. After radar observation, an aircraft had been sent to the area, but had not observed anything unusual. The Ministry of Defence had been informed and the Border Guard had begun a search of the area. The Government had not been informed at this point, but the incident indicated a need to clarify information rules. To give scant but reliable information to the press was right, because the incident had caused much superpower speculation, said General Valtaneri.

According to a report from Washington, Finland is one of the countries whose high technology trade with the USA will be under special supervision by the Department of Defence. Under-Secretary of Defence Richard Peste explained that this was aimed at preventing the Soviet Union from obtaining military information and material, without hindering trade between the United States and the country in question.
16.–17.1.
Nordic Social Democratic parties and the co-operation committee of trade unions (Samak) held a meeting in Oslo. In a security policy resolution, the meeting asked all Nordic parties to support the convocation of a meeting of parliamentarians in November 1985 to discuss the proposed Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone.
18.1.–4.2.
President Koivisto made an unofficial holiday trip to Japan and Australia. In Japan he met Emperor Hirohito. In Australia he discussed the international situation with Prime Minister Robert Hawke. President Koivisto made a stopover in California on his way back to Finland.
19.1.
A diplomat from Sri Lanka, Doctor Lal Jayawardena was appointed to head the UN World Institute for Development Economics Research WIDER in Helsinki.

Foreign Trade Minister Laine and his Algerian colleague Mohamed Aberkane signed an agreement setting up an economic, technological and scientific commission between the two countries. The aim is to balance trade and increase industrial cooperation.
22.1.
MP Paavo Lipponen (social democrat) proposed at a meeting of the Paasikivi Society in Tampere that if a fourth parliamentary defence committee were not to be appointed, it should be replaced by a review body consisting of representatives of the government parties and civil servants. He said he considered it important to ensure a democratic influence in the development of national defence.
23.1.
Meeting in Helsinki, the ministers of finance discussed a joint economic programme that would improve traffic among the Nordic countries, abolish obstacles others than customs and promote exports. Mr. Ahti Pekkala represented Finland.
24.1.
The Government approved the civilian service reform. According to a proposal by the Ministry of Defence the examination of conviction is to be discarded. The service period will be lengthened from 12 to 16 months. Jehovah's Witnesses will be completely exempted from military service and a change in content will bring along a common training period. Around 40 prominent persons appealed to the Government to keep the service period at 12 months.
28.1.
A reindeer herdsman found parts of the stray aerial target at Lake Inarinjärvi. In new searches, more parts were found and the Defence Forces said they were parts of a flying target and not of a cruise missile.
29.1.
The Union of Conscientious Objectors said that the government bill to overhaul the civilian service system meant making it worse. To lengthen the service period was an unjustifiable punishment. The change in the contents would make the alternative service closer to military service, which was not acceptable and would lead to a growing number of people who would also refuse to do civilian service.
30.1.
16 members of the Council of Europe announced that they would attend the 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE in Helsinki in August 1985. The Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany Hans-Dietrich Genscher announced the decision at a meeting of the Council in Strasbourg.
31.1.
Finland proposed negotiations to the ESA (European Space Agency) concerning associate membership. Parliament will take the final decision on Finnish membership.

The government's civilian service bill was submitted to Parliament.

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1.2.
The Soviet Union requested the return of the flying target's wreckage.

Ambassador Richard Tatter- man began a tour of all CSCE countries to discuss preparations for the anniversary ceremonies. The Foreign Ministry said that almost all countries took a positive view of the celebration.
5.–6.2.
Nordic Co-operation Organization of Trade Unions held a meeting in Espoo to study Nordic co-operation with the Third World. Foreign Trade Minister Jermu Laine said that exports and especially those of projects from Nordic countries to less developed countries were not commensurate with the potential in Third World countries. In a report presented at the meeting, measures were suggested to make co-operation more effective, notably through the Nordic Investment Bank.
5.2.
The Government decided to return the wreckage to the Soviet Union.
6.2.
In a speech to the Tampere Paasikivi Society Chairman Ilkka Suominen of the National Coalition party said he considered security policy discussion on the parliamentary level useful. A study should be made in order to find out how an understanding on a fourth parliamentary defence committee could be reached among the parties.

The Foreign Ministry appropriated an additional 37 million marks for development aid. The bulk of the money went towards a tuberculosis prevention campaign in Somalia.
7.2.
In his speech opening of the 1985 session of Parliament, President Koivisto said that it was a positive thing that the superpowers had started negotiations on nuclear and space weapons on a new and wider basis. President Koivisto said that Prime Minister Olof Palme shared his view that nuclear weapons should be banned from the Nordic countries and that the threat caused by cruise missiles to these countries should be eliminated in negotiations between the superpowers.
8.2.
A bill that would give citizens of other Nordic countries the same rights as Finns to set up limited companies and as members of boards was submitted to Parliament.
9.2.
In an interview in Turun Sanomat (the third-largest daily in Finland) the chairman of the Finnish People's Democratic League Kalevi Kivistd said that his party should consider nominating President Koivistö for the presidential election in 1988. Mr. Kivista pointed out that the question had not been discussed with his party.
9.2.
In an interview in Turun Sanomat (the third-largest daily in Finland) the chairman of the Finnish People's Democratic League Kalevi Kivistd said that his party should consider nominating President Koivistö for the presidential election in 1988. Mr. Kivista pointed out that the question had not been discussed with his party.
11.2.
The chairman of the Nordic conservative parties met in Helsinki. In a joint statement afterwards, they expressed their willingness to discuss a meeting of parliamentarians to discuss the Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone.

A seminar dealing with trade and economic questions was held in Espoo to mark the Finnish-Soviet Friendship Society's jubilee year. The view was expressed that trade could be increased through co-operation in the sphere of production.
12.2.
In an interview in Suomen Sosialidemokraatti Foreign Minister Väyrynen expressed his astonishment at the fact that Norway has not corrected her statement on the Lake Inarinjärvi missile. Väyrynen said that it was a flying target missile and not a cruise missile. On the whole, other countries had taken a positive view of Finland's handling of the incident. Information had been faulty, because army officers had not kept the President and the government adequately informed. The information given the public by the Defence Forces and the Border Guard was in part contradictory, but these problems would be solved.

The Norwegian Ministry of Defence reiterated its position that the object which had crashed in Finland was a strategic cruise missile.
13.2.
The Ministry of Defence published its five-year plan for 1986—90. The main goal is to modernize the land forces, to which 49 per cent of appropriations were directed. Air defence was given 25 per cent and sea defence 18 per cent, the five-year budget totalling 29.4 billion marks. Personnel will be increased by 1,000. The Ministry of Defence announced that the plan followed the line of the third parliamentary defence committee.

The Foreign Ministry appropriated a further 265 million marks for development aid. The main recipients were the UN development program UNDP, which was given 57 mill. marks and the World Food Programme (WFP) 50 mill. marks. The WIDER Institute was granted 45 million.
14.2.
Ambassador Richard Tötterman said that the political level of the anniversary meeting would be confirmed rather late. Having visited Rome, Washington, Ottawa, Reykjavik and Moscow, he considered a ministerial level the most probable.
16.2.
Former Centre Party chairman Johannes Virolainen said that the party should put its choice of presidential candidate to a vote of its members before the election in 1988. The party should choose a candidate of its own, said Mr. Virolainen, who thought that President Koivisto's re-election would not be certain if all non-socialist parties had a common candidate.
18.2.
The Foreign Ministry published its development co-operation programme for 1986—90. Co-operation will be continued with the present 25 countries. The aim is to increase development aid to 0.7 per cent of GNP or 2.7 billion marks by 1988. This means increasing personnel in the Development Co-operation Department by 50 persons. 40 per cent of the resources will go to multilateral aid and the rest to bilateral aid. The latter will go to Egypt, Kenya, Zambia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Vietnam, as before.
20.2.
The Social Democratic Party suggested that the defence committee be replaced by a consultative board, to be nominated for 3 years at a time. The committee would be under the Ministry of Defence and would include representatives of the government, the opposition and the Defence Forces. Its assignment would be to discuss the emphases in defence policy and issue statements on matters concerning the Defence Forces.

A Nordic working party chaired by the Finnish Minister of Culture Gustaf Björkstrand failed to reach agreement on costs of operating TV channels on the Tele-X communications satellite. Finland and Norway did not accept Sweden's costs-sharing proposal.
25.2.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen proposed that after the Stockholm Conference the Nordic countries begin considering more far-reaching security- and confidence-building measures relating to the Nordic region. "They cannot be specified yet as the situation will be influenced by the accomplishments of the Stockholm conference”, said Väyrynen.
27.2.
Tanzania was granted 24.4 million marks development aid.

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4.3.
An agreement with the Soviet Union on co-operation in post and telecommunications.
4.–8.3.
At the 33rd meeting of the Nordic Council in Reykjavik the Finnish delegation was led by Mrs. Elsi Hetemäki-Olander, MP. All of the parliamentary parties were represented and Prime Minister Sorsa together with eight other ministers was also present. It was decided that the costs of operating the Tele-X TV channels would be discussed during the spring. Prime Minister Sorsa proposed that the council seek new ways to support the Southern African SADC countries and promote Nordic co-operation in currency policies. On the other hand, this co-operation was said to be already comprehensive enough. The Council approved a programme designed to promote employment.
5.–8.3.
The joint Finnish-Malaysian economic commission met in Kuala Lumpur. Among the matters discussed were possibilities of co-operation in the fields of building, wood processing and the metal industry.
5.3.
Centre party chairman Paavo Väyrynen said in an interview in Kansan Tahto (People's democratic daily in Oulu) that non-socialist parties need not put up a common candidate for the 1988 presidential election.
7.3.
The national energy company Neste and Sojuzgaseksport of the Soviet Union signed an outline agreement covering the supply of gas up to the year 2008. Gas imports will grow from the present 800 million cubic meters to 2,400—3,400 million.
8.3.
Parliament passed a Government bill allowing foreigners to own up to 20 per cent of bank's shares.
11.3.
President Koivisto and Prime Minister Sorsa expressed their condolences on the death of Soviet leader K.U. Chernenko.
12.–15.3.
The IVth appendix of the general agreement on maritime protection in the Baltic Sea was modified.
12.–15.3.
At a meeting of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea in Helsinki, 14 recommendations were drawn up to prevent pollution of the sea. The meeting concentrated on pollution from the mainland and decided that more specific recommendations be later issued for different branches of industry.
12.3.
Under-Secretary of State Klaus Törnudd said at the Geneva CD that negative security guarantees accorded by the nuclear powers to non-nuclear countries were not enough. The guarantees should also cover indirect nuclear threats such as violation of the air space of a non-nuclear state in order to strike at targets elsewhere.
12.–14.3.
President Koivisto and Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended the funeral of President Chernenko in Moscow. They met Mikhail Gorbachev, who had been elected Secretary General of the Soviet Communist Party. The development of relations between the two countries and ensuring their continuity were stressed in the discussions.
13.3.
Prime Minister and chairman of the Social Democratic Party Kalevi Sorsa said that in his opinion discussion of the presidential election was premature.
15.3.
At the Stockholm Conference Finland demanded that the Conference begin practical negotiations to reach an agreement on confidence- building measures. The issues to be agreed upon would be the development of military notification and observation systems, emphasizing the principle of non-use of force and restrictions on military operations.
18.3.
Norwegian Defence Minister Anders Sjaastad said that Norway would welcome a verifiable agreement limiting the number of long-range and eventually also medium-range cruise missiles. According to Mr. Sjaastad, diplomatic enquiries into then Lake Inarinjärvi incident had been well conducted. By calling the object a cruise missile Norway's intention was to describe it technically rather than to use a political term, he said.
19.3.
The Ministry of Defence sent a letter to the political parties proposing a parliamentary planning committee on defence policy. It would work under the Ministry of Defence on a trial basis until the election period ends in two years' time. The committee would comprise seven members, of whom the Social Democrats would nominate two and the Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Finnish People's Democratic League, Rural Party and Swedish People's Party one member each.

The head of the Finnish delegation to the Stockholm Conference, Ambassador Matti Kahiluoto said that the military pacts' starting points remained the same as at the beginning of the conference. No hopes for a new agreement on confidence- building measures would be realistic before the 10th anniversary celebration of the CSCE, although the atmosphere at conference was good.
20.–22.3.
The Socialist International's Disarmament Council visited Moscow under the leadership of chairman Kalevi Sorsa. The delegation expressed their concern at the standstill in the Geneva talks. It met party leader Mikhail Gorbachev and urged a summit meeting between the United States and Soviet leaders.
20.3.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen expressed his disappointment that the United Nation's special committee on nuclear-weapons-free zones had not achieved unanimous proposals concerning the establishment of such zones.
22.3.
Ambassador Kahiluoto said he believed the fifth session of the Disarmament Conference has gone as expected. All proposals had been discussed in detail.

An agreement with the United States on scientific-technological cooperation.
24.3.
A cultural agreement with Israel.
25.–26.3.
The Disarmament Council arrived at Washington. The delegation met Vice President George Bush and Secretary of State George Shultz. As in Moscow the delegation urged a summit meeting.
26.3.
The Nordic foreign ministers held a meeting in Helsinki. Foreign Minister Väyrynen acted as the host. The meeting decided to appoint a working group to study joint measures to bring pressure to bear on South Africa.
27.3.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen said in a speech at a civil defence course that the 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE would most likely take place at foreign minister level, but there was still the possibility of a higher-level meeting. The failure of the UN committee on nuclear-weapon-free zones did not affect efforts to realize one in the Nordic region. Väyrynen also condemned all plans to militarize space.
28.3.
. President Koivisto said in an interview with the editors-in-chief of the Centre party's dailies that he had noticed certain ‘sportsminded' remarks in connection with the Soviet Union. Behind this was on intention to offend, although anti-Sovietism was not a predominant feature. President Koivisto did not accept the view expressed in a Helsingin Sanomat editorial that it would be advisable not to promote the plan for Nordic nuclear- weapons-free-zone. The question was whether the Nordic countries would agree to influence the superpowers to accept the idea.
29.3.
The National Coalition Party demanded that the Government take steps to reduce trade between Finland and South Africa and gradually sever all economic relations.
30.3.
The Planning Commission for Information on National Defence published the results of an opinion poll conducted in December 1984. They showed that 95 per cent of the population considered the foreign policy well handled. 85 per cent held that the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance had a positive influence on the international position of our country. 83 per cent were in favour of armed defence in any situation if Finland is attacked.

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1.–2.4.
The business newspaper Kauppalehti and the Soviet Ekonomitseskaja Gazeta organized a seminar on today's Finnish-Soviet trade. Soviet Deputy Minister AN. Manzulo said that the Soviet Union had reservations about using convertible currencies in Finnish-Soviet trade but added that the Soviet Union was prepared to study the question. Prime Minister Sorsa and Foreign Minister Väyrynen proposed a study of possibilities to broaden the range of payment modes. Using convertible currency could increase flexibility in trade. The Soviet trade authorities saw barter as a means of boosting trade.
1.–4.4.
A Finnish delegation led by Minister at the Ministry of Social Welfare and Health Matti Puhakka attended the 37th anniversary commemoration of the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance in Moscow. Minister Puhakka said that, like his predecessors, President Koivisto attached importance to deepening Finnish-Soviet relations through personal contacts on the highest level. Contacts between the two countries have been broadened by trade unions, political parties and city-twinning arrangements.
2.4.
At a ceremony marking the 37th anniversary of the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, Minister of Culture Björkstrand said that the Treaty guarantees the stability and broadening of Finnish-Soviet relations, which are broadly supported also by public opinion. The Soviet delegation was led by Deputy-Minister of Justice N.A. Osetov. He stressed the importance of continuity in the CSCE process and successful celebration of the 10th anniversary of the Helsinki CSCE summit in summer 1985. President Koivisto attended the occasion.
3.4.
The Finnish United Nations Association said the government bill to overhaul the civilian service system did not present a clearly equivalent alternative to military service, but made civilian service a part of the national defence system. The bill should be returned either to the Ministry of Labour or of Justice to be re-examined.
4.4.
In an interview in Suomenmaa (the main newspaper supporting the Centre Party) Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that the political importance of the 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE depended on the speeches to be held, on the unofficial meetings and on possible accomplishment of a final statement. About the Arms Reduction Talks in Mr. Väyrynen said that Finland considered it important to prevent an arms race in space and to reduce the number of nuclear weapons as well as to agree on a treaty which would include prohibition of long- and medium-range cruise missiles. On the subject of development aid, he said that mistakes in the implementation of projects had been due to lack of earlier experience of working in developing countries. The number of programme countries would not be increased, as concentrating resources was seen as useful in appropriating aid. The World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) is intended to help ameliorate the position of developing countries. The institute is important also to Finland as it increases our contacts with the LDCs.
11.–12.4.
Speaking at a conference of OECD ministers, Foreign Trade Minister Jermu Laine said that Finland would support the model presented by the EC on the new round of GATT negotiations. He also expressed Finland's disappointment that not all of the OECD countries had expedited tariff cuts in order to support the trade system.
14.4.
Defence Minister Veikko Pihlajamäki stated that Finland would acquire seismological data applicable to verification of a nuclear test ban. It was a question of building a basis for control if the political pre-requisitions for a ban agreement could be reached.
15.–19.4.
In negotiations in Helsinki representatives of the United States and the Soviet Union prepared the third follow-up meeting on the nuclear non-proliferation treaty to be held in Geneva in November.
18.4.
The Government appointed a parliamentary planning committee on defence policy to report on other authorities' plans concerning defence policy. It is not intended to prepare independent reports like previous defence policy committees. The chairman of the seven-member committee is Secretary of State Matti Tuovinen of the Centre Party. Representatives of the defence administration and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Finance were appointed to give expert help to the committee which will work on an experimental basis until April 1987.
20.4.
In an interview with social democrat dailies President Koivisto said that the idea of a Nordic nuclear- weapons-free zone was still of topical interest and saw the attitudes of other Nordic countries as positive. The question was first and foremost one of the aspirations of the Nordic countries themselves and secondly of the attitudes of the nuclear powers. Talking about altering the system of presidential election in conjunction with the proposed constitutional reform, President Koivisto said that the Government bill was the best-argued of the alternatives, despite the fact that only a small change would be involved.
22.–25.4.
President and Mrs. Mauno Koivisto paid an official state visit to Bulgaria. Foreign Minister Väyrynen accompanied them. The host was President and Party chairman Todor Zhivkov, with whom President Koivisto discussed Nordic and Balkan nuclear-weapon-free zones and the 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE. They also discussed possibilities for increasing economic co-operation and balancing trade. In dinner speeches both Presidents demanded the prevention of an arms race in space.
25.4.
15 members of parliament belonging to the Finnish People's Democratic League proposed legislation to sever all relations with South Africa.
26.4.
A bill providing for special powers to ensure the security of the foreign delegations attending the 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE was introduced. The fixed-term legislation is similar to that in effect during the Helsinki meeting in 1975.
27.4.
On the 40th anniversary of the end of the Lapland war, the former Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs Matti Tuovinen said that the war had been an indication of the willingness of the Finns to fulfil the terms of the 1944 truce and to implement a new foreign policy.

Foreign Minister Väyrynen announced that he would try to promote legislation to guarantee growth of development aid up to 0.7 per cent of GNP by 1989. The Centre Party meeting issued a statement commemorating the 40th anniversary of the end of World War II and the Lapland war. According to the statement, the stable situation in Europe could be maintained by continuing the CSCE process.
29.–30.4.
The Foreign Ministers of the European N + N (neutral and nonaligned) countries held a meeting in Stockholm to discuss the present state of the Disarmament Conference, the upcoming human rights conference in Ottawa and the CSCE anniversary meeting.
30.4.
Social Democrat chairman Kalevi Sorsa said that the Nordic countries must increase co-operation on human rights questions. The planned co-operation between the Nordic countries and the SADCC was a constructive political measure to help countries under pressure from South Africa. According to Mr. Sorsa "Star Wars” plans did not promote security, but rather the arms race. On Nicaragua, he said that what was involved were pure power politics that divided even American opinion.

The chairman of a committee studying economic relations with LDC's Pär Stenbäck supported Foreign Minister Väyrynen's proposed legislation on development aid.

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3.5.
The government communications committee completed its proposal on sharing the costs of the Tele-X satellite. The proposal will be presented to the other Nordic countries.
5.5.
The Social Democratic Party organized a commemoration of VE Day in Jyväskylä. Party Secretary Erkki Liikanen said in his speech that the end of the war 40 years earlier had opened new channels for Finland's political development. The Chairman of the Federal Council of the Soviet Supreme Committee attended the commemoration and spoke on behalf of his country.
6.5.
The Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions demanded an immediate end to economic and other relations with South Africa. The organization appointed a committee to propose steps that the organization should take to stop Finland's trade with South Africa.
8.5.
President Koivisto made a statement on the 40th anniversary commemoration of the victory over fascism. He said that in the Lapland war Finland on the side of the Allies had made her own contribution to sapping Nazi Germany's strength and thus prevented troops from being used on other fronts.
9.5.
The Finnish People's Democratic League issued a statement on the anniversary of Germany's defeat and stressed the prevention of a new major war.

At the human rights conference in Ottawa, Finland emphasized that states are entitled to express their concern over violations of human rights in other countries.
10.5.
The Embassy of the United States asked the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to explain why the Finnish Prime Minister had criticized American foreign policy in a way inconsistent with Finnish foreign policy. The enquiry was prompted by a speech by Prime Minister Sorsa in Helsinki on 30. 4., in which he touched on SDI plans and US policy towards Nicaragua.
11.5.
At a ceremony arranged by the Finnish-Soviet Friendship Society to commemorate the end of the Second World War, governor Asko Oinas spoke for the government's behalf. Chairman Martti Miettunen spoke for the Society and. AK. Romanov, vice-president of the Soviet scientific- technical State committee, spoke for the Soviet-Finnish Society.
15.5.
Ambassador Richard Tötterman finished his tour of all 35 CSCE countries to discuss arrangements for the anniversary commemoration.
16.5.
Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher of the Federal Republic on Germany said after his meeting with Soviet Foreign Minister A. Gromyko in Vienna that the 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE would probably take place on Foreign Minister level.
19.–25.5.
The fifth Finnish-Soviet youth friendship festival took place in Helsinki and Tampere. Foreign Minister Väyrynen spoke at the opening ceremonies and appealed to young people in both countries to actively promote friendship between their countries.
22.–24.5.
The UN development programme UNDP and the Society of International Development (SID) organized a seminar on development co-operation in Espoo. The seminar dealt with recipient countries' possibilities to increase their own contributions to planning and implementing development programmes. Foreign Minister Väyrynen spoke at the opening ceremony.
22.5.
National Coalition Party chairman Ilkka Suominen said that his party would find its own candidate for the 1988 presidential election. To find a common candidate for the non-socialist parties to overthrow Mr. Koivisto was not the aim, he added.

26 000 persons signed an appeal demanding isolation of South Africa. It was presented to Foreign Minister Väyrynen and the parliamentary groups by the "Isolate South Africa” committee.
28.5.
A personal appeal for Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone signed by 141 members of parliament was presented to Prime Minister Sorsa.
29.–31.5.
The first meeting of the board of directors of the WIDER Institute was held in Helsinki. The meeting decided that subjects of research in the next two years would be hunger and poverty, questions of money, trade and finance and development problems caused by technology. The chairman of the supervisory board of the International University of Japan, Dr. Saburo Okita was nominated chairman.
29.5.
The Finnish UN Association organized a seminar on relations between Nordic and SADC countries. Prime Minister Sorsa said that SADCC co-operation presented an alternative to the standstill in the North-South dialogue. Ambassador of Zambia S.J. Kazunga said he considered it important that co-operation programme be applied to existing development plans.
29.–30.5.
Minister of Defence Pihlajamäki attended a meeting of Nordic ministers of defence in Stockholm. The ministers discussed the conditions under which UN Peacekeeping forces work and appealed to the parties to the Middle East crisis to allow the troops in Lebanon to operate in more favourable circumstances.

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5.–7.6.
President and Mrs. Mauno Koivisto paid an official state visit to Rumania, accompanied by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen. Presidents Nicolae Ceausescu and Koivisto discussed Finnish-Rumanian trade co-operation and the Geneva talks. Mr. Koivisto clarified his appeal on long- range cruise missiles.
7.6.
The Swedish Government announced that it would accept the Finnish proposal regarding the costs of the Tele-X satellite. A total of 250 million crowns or 182 million marks is to be shared by Finland, Sweden and Norway. Minister of Communications Matti Luttinen negotiated the proposal in Stockholm.

At a meeting of the NATO Council in Estorilio, Portugal, the foreign ministers of 16 NATO countries said that they supported a foreign- minister -level meeting.

The South Lebanese Army (SLA) abducted 24 Finnish soldiers belonging to the United Nations peacekeeping force. SLA leaders accused the Finnish troops of having handed 11 SLA members over to the Muslim Amal militia.

The Foreign Ministry appealed to UN Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar for the release of the hostage soldiers.
8.6.
The Finnish UN Embassy said that the Finnish peacekeeping forces had followed United Nations' regulations in their zone in South Lebanon.

The SLA freed three Finnish soldiers.

Unifil and SLA began negotiations to have the remaining Finnish hostages freed.

Prime Minister Sorsa negotiated over the telephone with Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres on the situation of the hostage Finnish soldiers in Lebanon. Foreign Minister Väyrynen also contacted his Israeli colleague Jitzhak Shamir. The Israeli Government gave its assurance that the Finnish soldiers were being treated well.
8.–10.6.
Foreign Trade Minister Laine attended an unofficial meeting of foreign trade ministers from 20 countries in Stockholm. GATT negotiations to discuss the promotion of a new round of Lame said that Finland considered it important to prevent protectionist measures in world trade. 29. 6. Finland expressed her interest in receiving further information on the EC high-technology project Eureka. Information was requested from France, which has been the leader of the project.
9.6.
The heads of the postal services in Finland, Sweden and Denmark begin studying the possibility of renting broadcasting time for joint Nordic use on the international Intelsat communications satellite system.

Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that he trusted Israel and the SLA assurances that the Finish UN soldiers were not in danger. In an effort to solve the crisis, the Finnish Government had been in touch with the United Nations and the governments of Israel, Syria and Lebanon as well as with the Muslim Amal militia.

Israeli Minister of Defence Jitzhak Rabin accused Unifil and Finnbatt troops of activity that did not promote Israel's security. He said that Finnish troops had by their actions helped Amal and surrendered 11 SLA members to Amal before the Finns were kidnapped.
10.6.
The Finnish Government said in a statement that the abduction of the Finnish UN soldiers was most serious and condemnable. The Government appealed to the UN and the governments concerned to use their power to solve the crisis. Foreign Minister Väyrynen described minister of Defence Jitzhak Rabin's statement as "astonishing”. Such statements were contrary to the information that the Finnish Government had received.
11.–12.6.
The Finnish Institute of Foreign Affairs organized a research seminar on the "Development of a European Security Regime and Views of the Future 10 Years after Helsinki”. The seminar examined European security from a comprehensive point of view by presenting security models and discussing economic and military questions. A book based on the seminar papers and called "Ten Years after Helsinki: The Making of the European Security Regime” will be published.
11.–14.6.
At a meeting of the Finnish-Soviet Commission for Economic Co-operation in Leningrad the main themes were exploiting mineral resources on the Kola Peninsula and building a pulp mill in Arda as well as the 4th phase of the Svetogorsk wood-processing complex. The later two projects will start in 1986, when the next 5-year outline agreement period begins. Co-operation on the Kola Peninsula will be discussed in order to make detailed plans. Prime Minister Sorsa, as the Finnish chairman, and the Soviet chairman, Deputy prime Minister I. Arhipov, attended the meeting. In conjunction with the meeting they inaugurated the Tosno railway depot.
11.6.
L.N. Tolkunov, chairman of the Federal Council of the Soviet Supreme Committee; David Emery, vice-president of the Arms Control and Reduction Office of the United States, and Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen, lectured at a meeting of the Paasikivi Society on "Security in Europe — 10 Years after Helsinki”. The superpower representatives gave their opinion of the present situation with respect to arms reduction and the deadlocked Geneva talks. Mr. Tolkunov considered the significance of the 1975 CSCE meeting world-wide. Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that the CSCE process supported peaceful development in Europe and saw it as a long-term process.

In a TV interview the President Koivisto said that during his term he has not faced as many problems as he had expected. This was due to favourable external and internal circumstances. President Koivisto said that the President need not interfere as much today as in his predecessors' time.

The Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee completed a report urging the Government to prevent Finnish investments in South Africa.

The Finnish Government appealed to the Israeli Government to use its authority to have the Finnish UN soldiers freed.

The United Nations' Deputy Secretary General Brian Urquhart, who is in charge of peacekeeping forces arrived in Israel to negotiate the release of the Finnish hostages.
12.6.
President Koivisto sent a telegram to Secretary General Perez de Cuellar stressing that it was essential that the Finnish hostages be freed immediately and unconditionally. The prestige of the UN required that the crisis be solved.
14.6.
All the Ministers concerned with the Tele-X satellite met in Helsinki, They stated that making an agreement on the satellite would require solving some economic and technical problems. The Finnish Minister of Culture Gustaf Björkstrand believed that the issue would be resolved by September 1985.

It was announced that the SLA would free the hostages on 15. 6.

An agreement with Sweden on partial confirmation of a boundary survey on the Finnish-Swedish border.
15.6.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen commented on the SLA's decision to free the Finnish soldiers by saying that Brian Urquhart's negotiations had played an important role. He also said that prolongation of the crisis had strained Finnish-Israeli relations. No separate discussions would be arranged between the countries, but the incident would come up for discussion again on a suitable occasion. According to the information he had received, Väyrynen said, the Finnish troops had acted quite correctly at the beginning of the crisis.

The SLA freed the Finnish UN soldiers.

134 MPs presented a parliamentary question and demanded that the Government guarantee that development aid be raised to 0.7 per cent of GNP by 1989.
15.–16.6.
UN Deputy Secretary General Brian Urquhart visited Finland to explain the progress of negotiations in the hostage crisis. He praised the behaviour of the Finnish troops during the crisis.
18.–19.6.
The Chairman of the Finnish Communist Party Arvo Aalto visited France on the invitation of the French Communist Party.
18.–19.6.
The council of the Socialist International met in Södertälje, Sweden. Chairman Kalevi Sorsa led the Finnish Social Democratic Party delegation. He lauded President Reagan for his decision to continue the SALT agreement even after its expiry. The Socialist International issued a statement condemning the arming of space.
18.6.
Parliament passed the civilian service reform bill, lengthening the service period by 4 months. Examination boards will be abolished and Jehovah's Witnesses exempted from military service in peacetime.

President Koivisto and Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Tikhonov inaugurated 2nd and 3rd phases of the Kostamus project.
18.–20.6.
The Nordic Ministers of Energy held their meeting in Helsinki, with Minister for Trade and Industry Seppo Lindblom acting as host. They dealt with plans for Nordic energy cooperation in 1986-88.
19.–21.6.
The Nordic Ministers of Justice met in Helsinki. The subjects discussed included further preparation for corresponding trade laws and legislation required by new technology.
25.6.
The US Under-Secretary of State on European issues Robie Palmer said that the United States would strongly stress human rights at the 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE. Palmer described international co-operation based on the CSCE Final Act as better than action at the United Nations, even if the former, too, has brought disappointments.
26.6.
UN sources said that Finnish UN soldiers in Lebanon had helped 11 SLA soldiers to defect to the Muslin Amal militia during a staged attack.
27.6.
The Government announced that according to their information the Finnish troops had acted on instructions from Unifil in the situation that had led to their being taken hostage. The foreign policy leadership was aware of the process in detail.
28.6.
The UN office in Finland said they had deliberately kept silent about the shooting that had taken place during the hostage crisis. The UN Secretariat had requested this in order to facilitate negotiations with the SLA and Israel.

Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar of the United Nations made a statement on the Finnish Unifil troops operations in Lebanon, saying that the SLA members had voluntarily changed sides and the Finnish troops had helped them. There was no evidence that Amal and the Finnish battalion had agreed on this beforehand.

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1.7.
In an interview in Turun Sanomat President Koivisto said that according to a United Nations' report the Finnish UN peacekeeping forces had acted according to the organization's orders during the hostage crisis in Lebanon. The criticism expressed by Colonel (Ret.) Tauno Kuosa, who has served with UN peacekeeping forces, was not justified because he was not informed about the general situation, said President Koivisto.
4.7.
A committee that has studied cultural co-operation as an aspect of development co-operation submitted its report to the Foreign Minister. The report proposed an immediate in crease in cultural co-operation and grants for this purpose in the 1986 budget.
4.–12.7.
The Air-Pollution-Control Conference of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECEI was held in Helsinki. The Minister of the Environment Matti Ahde acted as the host. President Mauno Koivisto attended the opening ceremonies. 21 of the 24 participating countries signed an agreement to reduce sulphur emissions by 30 per cent in 1980—93. The meeting appointed a committee to study how the nitric oxide emissions could be reduced internationally.
5.7.
The Finnish authorities announced that Finland would try to join Eureka, although she had not been invited to the Eureka meeting in Paris.
12.7.
The Government submitted a bill stating that the Government should make a report on development cooperation policy to Parliament every year. The intention is to increase Parliament's possibilities to influence the implementation of development policy.

The President promulgated the new civilian service legislation, which exempts Jehovah's Witnesses exemption from military service in peacetime. The legislation comes into force in January 1987 and will remain in force for five years. The Ministry of Labour will plan the civilian service posts. Conscientious objectors will be placed mainly in rescue services and in social and health care tasks.

President Koivisto appointed the Finnish delegation to the 10th anniversary commemoration in Helsinki. It was led by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen.

Foreign Trade Minister Jermu Laine attended a Eureka conference at which Western European technological co-operation was planned. In his speech he emphasized that Finland would not participate in possible military projects or applications. Otherwise technological co-operation with Western Europe was natural.
15.–19.7.
The final conference of the United Nations Women's Decade was held in Nairobi, Kenya. Minister of Education Kaarina Suonio led the Finnish delegation. The delegates also included Minister of Social Welfare and Health Eeva Kuuskoski-Vikatmaa, representatives of women's and party organizations and the trade union movement. Minister Suonio said in her speech that Finland would increase aid to international organizations that work to improve conditions for women.
16.–19.7.
The political career of President Urho Kekkonen was studied at a seminar in Orivesi. Jukka Tarkka assessed Kekkonen's initiative for a Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone, Professor Osmo Apunen his domestic policies and Lauri Haataja lectured on trade with Eastern Europe in the 1960s.
24.7.
The Foreign Minister announced that Finland's proposed communiqué after the anniversary meeting would not be issued. Finland presented the proposal to the CSCE countries in the end of June, but not all found it acceptable.
25.7.
The Government issued a statement condemning the apartheid policy of the Republic of South Africa. The Government supported economic sanctions against South Africa proposed by France in the UN Security Council. Finland will take joint action with other Nordic countries to end apartheid.
25.–26.7.
The joint organization of conservative parties in Western countries, the IDU, met in Washington. Chairman Ilkka Suominen led the Finnish delegation. He proposed that a permanent secretariat for the CSCE be appointed and said the CSCE process was essential for détente and cooperation. Mr. Suominen also expressed Finland's negative attitude to the SDI-plans.
26.7.
Finnstroi and the Soviet export company v/b Prommashimport signed a contract covering the building of the Svetogorsk 4th phase in Moscow. The sum involved is approximately 300 million marks.
30.7.–1.8.
The 10th anniversary commemoration of the CSCE took place in Helsinki. The foreign ministers of all 35 signatory countries attended. President Koivisto spoke at the opening ceremonies. Foreign Minister Väyrynen spoke at the meeting and delivered the final speech at its end. President Koivisto met the foreign ministers of both superpowers, Great Britain, the Nordic countries and the N + N countries. Foreign Minister Väyrynen met all of his 35 counterparts. In conjunction with the celebration, the Nordic foreign ministers held a meeting to discuss the situation in South Africa and the CSCE and ministers of EEC countries also met to discuss the situation in South Africa. The anniversary meeting did not agree on a joint communiqué.
31.7.
The Ministry for Trade and Industry announced that it would negotiate with commercial and industrial organizations on limiting trade with South Africa and seeking other trade partners. The aim would be to introduce general legislation to include a variety of limitation measures.

Elokuu010203040506070809101112

2.8.
The Swedish People's Party demanded stricter measures from the Government towards South Africa. These should be based on the resolution adopted by Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee. The party also expressed its support for joint Nordic measures against South Africa.
9.8.
A bill making it easier for a citizen of another Nordic country to establish or be a partner in a limited company in Finland was passed. Under the new law, half of the board members can be from other Nordic countries, while the other half must be Finnish citizens.
10.8.
In an interview in Pohjolan Sanomat General Jaakko Valtanen said that air defences in Lapland would be improved by adding the anti-aircraft weapons and boosting the efficiency of the aerial surveillance system. The general said he considered the defence of Lapland very satisfactory on the whole.
12.8.
On the 30th anniversary of the Finnish-Soviet scientific-technological treaty Minister for Trade and Industry Seppo Lindblom said that the agreement was a basis for the development of economic co-operation. It was also a sign of lasting relations that are not affected by world politics.
17.8.
The Chairman of the Social Democratic parties of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark proposed measures against South Africa. These would include banning imports of agricultural produce and stopping all public-sector purchases. They also urged all Nordic companies to divert their trade with South Africa elsewhere.
19.–20.8.
The Finnish People's Democratic League's parliamentary group demanded that all relations with South Africa be broken off and charges d'affaires recalled.
22.8.
The Finnish Government decided to prepare legislation aimed at prohibiting investments in, loans to or leasing to South Africa.

Representatives of the forest products industry and Foreign Trade Minister Jermu Laine negotiated restrictions on trade with South Africa. The former said that such restrictions were impossible since they could not find compensatory markets elsewhere.
26.8.
10th Anniversary Commemoration seminar was held in Helsinki by the Disarmament Consultative Committee. Under-Secretary of State Klaus Törnudd said that nuclear-weapons-free zones were important factors in security policy.

On an international Namibia Day Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that the Finnish Government would negotiate with several industrial and commercial organizations concerning possible restrictions on trade with South Africa. He also expressed the Government's support for the Namibian liberation organization Swapo.
27.8.
The Government and the central organizations agreed on restricting imports from South Africa. Imports will be reduced by 80 per cent. The negotiations did not agree on export restrictions.
29.8.
The executive committee of the Nordic Co-operation Organization of Trade Unions met in Lappeenranta. It demanded that Nordic governments act to carry out an economic boycott of South Africa.
31.8.–1.9.
The Finnish Committee for the Promotion of European Security organized an international seminar in Helsinki to discuss European security policy issues with regard to the CSCE Final Act. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen and representatives of both superpowers lectured at the seminar.

Syyskuu010203040506070809101112

2.9.
The Government Foreign Affairs Committee agreed on the general contents of a law on measures against South Africa. The law will prohibit loans, participating in loan consortia and leasing. Other measures could be co-ordinated by decrees or Government orders.

The Foreign Ministry explained its repairs and building project for the water supply and sewerage system in Hanoi, to be implemented in 1985-87. Finland is contributing 120 million marks to the project as development aid. The contract was signed on 11. 6.
4.9.
At the third follow-up meeting of the non-proliferation treaty in Geneva Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that the treaty had been successful in its main aim, preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A total ban on nuclear tests would limit the development of weapons and slow down the arms race. According to Minister Väyrynen non-nuclear states and nuclear-weapons-free zones would diminish the threat of a nuclear conflict. At a separate information meeting he stressed that continuity of the non-proliferation treaty should be guaranteed also after it expires in 1995.
7.–9.9.
Journalists held a CSCE-related meeting in Helsinki to discuss "Journalists and détente”. 26 CSCE countries were represented. Foreign Minister Väyrynen said at the opening ceremony that the important task of the journalists was to inform citizens of the progress of security and cooperation in Europe.
11.9.
An agreement with the GDR on tourism.
13.9.
The Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions appealed to Foreign Trade Minister Jermu Laine for more comprehensive measures to stop trade with South Africa.
17.9.
The scientific-technological cooperation agreement was celebrated in Helsinki. President Koivisto attended the function and also Soviet Deputy-Prime Minister G.I. Mantshuk. Foreign Minister Väyrynen said in his speech that co-operation was not just in the fields of economics or science but also meant the development of neighbourly relations. A mutual agreement was signed to expand co-operation in nuclear physics and applied research.

Finland announced her intention to apply for full membership of Efta in autumn 1985. In his statement Foreign Trade Minister Laine said that full membership would not mean any new obligations but would merely confirm the de facto situation. It would not affect economic relations with the Soviet Union, either.
18.9.
The Government submitted the1985 budget, totalling 100.7 billion marks, to Parliament. The total appropriated for the administration of foreign affairs was 2,177 million, of which 1,490 million, or 0,47 per cent of GNP, was for development aid. The Ministry of Defence's share was 5,248 million, of which a total of 1,500 million is to be spent on basic procurements for the army.

The Finnish Communist Party demanded a report on factors in trade or foreign policy that require Finland to become a full member of EFTA. Full membership was seen as binding Finland even closer to the Western economic system.
18.–27.9.
President and Mrs. Koivisto paid an unofficial visit to the Soviet Union. President Koivisto met Party Chairman Mikhail Gorbachev, with whom he discussed oil exports to Finland, economic co-operation and international questions.
22.–27.9.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen spoke at the General Assembly in New York. He said that the international situation had improved during 1985. Accelerated armament, especially a possible arms race in space, regional crises and famine required action by UN members. He demanded obligatory sanctions to press South Africa to end apartheid.
25.9.
An agreement with the Soviet Union on visible tend payments in 1986—90.
26.–27.9.
The Soviet Institute held a seminar on "Continuity and change in Finnish-Russian/Soviet relations”.
30.9.
The Centre Party decided to nominate its candidate for the 1988 presidential election at its congress in summer 1986.

The head of the Defence Forces, General Valtanen said in a speech at a National defence course for civilians that maintaining the efficiency of the defence forces would become more difficult in the 1990s. With the present resources and schedules it would be difficult to maintain the required capacity.

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2.10.
In an interview in Turun Sanomat Prime Minister Sorsa proposed that an electoral alliance be formed re-elect President Koivisto in 1988. He pointed out that he did not have the President's authorization for his idea.

The Finnish Africa Committee and the Peace Committee of Finland signed a co-operation agreement with the South African liberation organization ANC. The Finnish organizations promised to contribute 1,4 million marks towards building a health-care and trade school centre.

The Finnish Government commented on the Israeli air raid on the PLO headquarters in Tunisia. It expressed its serious concern at the use of violence and breach of the principle of territorial inviolability and demanded that the incident be dealt with by the UN Security Council.
3.10.
Representatives of other parties assessed Prime Minister Sorsa's plan for an electoral alliance to back President Koivisto. The general opinion was that it is too early to discuss the election, two and a half years in the future. The Centre Party reiterated its decision to nominate the candidate in summer 1986. The Social Democratic party stated that the question of nominating a candidate would be taken up at its congress in 1987. The Foreign Ministry announced that in the beginning of 1986 the Nordic and SADC countries would sign a joint declaration of principles in relation to increasing economic co-operation between the countries.
4.–6.10.
The Peace Committee of Finland and the Peace League of Finland organized a meeting of representatives of the CSCE countries in Kiljava. Delegates from 50 peace movements in both Eastern and Western countries considered the dialogue useful although views remained far apart.
7.–11.10.
Negotiations concerning visible trade between Finland and the Soviet Union were initiated in Helsinki. The participants also discussed completing the long-term co-operation programme and its continuation until the year 2000.
8.10.
The last of 50 Hawk jet trainers was handed over to the Air Force. The head of the Air Force, Lieutenant-General Meriö, said that the Air Force would need 30 more planes.
14.–16.10.
President and Mrs. Koivisto paid an official state visit to Austria accompanied by Foreign Minister Väyrynen. President Koivisto met President Rudolf Kirschschläger and Chancellor Fred Sinowatz. With the latter, President Koivisto discussed East-West relations and co-operation between neutral countries.
15.–17.10.
The Socialist International held a council meeting and its second disarmament conference in Vienna. Social Democratic Party Chairman Kalevi Sorsa led the Finnish delegation. The council meeting concentrated on the 40th anniversary of the United Nations and multilateral co-operation. A working group led by Mr. Sorsa presented its report to the disarmament conference on means of halting both nuclear and conventional armament.
15.10.
In United Nations Disarmament Committee Under-Secretary of State Klaus Törnudd expressed Finland's view that the organization's measures on disarmament questions should be concentrated, rather than issuing new and partly overlapping resolutions on the subject every year. The UN Geneva conference should be made better use of to prevent an arms race in space.
17.–18.10.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended a meeting of Nordic foreign ministers in Oslo. The meeting adopted a joint programme of measures against South Africa. The 15- item programme prohibits loans to and new investments in South Africa, proposes an international oil embargo and urges companies trading with South Africa to move their trade elsewhere. The Nordic movements expressing solidarity with the Black majority in South Africa found the measures inadequate. Denmark and Sweden proposed that Finland accept more refugees that at present.
18.–19.10.
Peace organizations of trade unions and scientists organized a seminar on ‘Scientific and professional ethics in peace work'.
19.–26.10.
President and Mrs. Koivisto attended the ceremonies marking the 40th anniversary of the United Nations in New York. In his speech, he emphasized the aims and principles of the UN Charter. The organization's universal character gave it prestige and offers small countries an opportunity to express their views on the international situation and problems. In New York President Koivisto met Vice-President George Bush, the Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and the Chinese Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang.
20.10.
The Finnish Transport Workers' Union, Paper Workers' Union and the Central Committee of Public Servants launched a boycott of South Africa. The boycott was aimed at isolating the South African regime and pressuring the Finnish Government to make stronger measures.
22.–24.10.
The Nordic ministers of defence met in Jyväskyla. They discussed the protection of the peacekeeping forces in South Lebanon and the financial difficulties of the United Nations.
24.10.
Between approximately 120,000 and 140,000 people participated in peace marches, 20,000 in Helsinki alone. The motto was "Let Finland be a forerunner of peace”.

On the 40th anniversary of the United Nations the Government issued a statement supporting the goals of the UN Charter and confirming that Finland would continue her co-operation with other Nordic countries to strengthen the position of the UN.

At a ceremony marking the 20th anniversary of the Finnish Refugee Help Society Minister of Social Welfare and Health Eeva Kuuskoski-Vikatmaa said that the Government had decided in principle to admit 100 refugees every year. The first group is to arrive in spring 1986.

A visa-abolition agreement with Bolivia.
25.10.
The GHO of the Defence Forces submitted a plan for the development of the staff system to the Ministry of Defence. According to the plan, the present military college would be replaced by a military academy, which would offer M.A. —equivalent degrees. Warrant officers would be trained in a officer college and through the military academy could be promoted to the highest ranks. The military staff would include officers, specialist officers and military professional staff. The plan should be implemented before 1995.
26.10.
The Christian League demanded that all trade between Finland and South Africa be ended until apartheid is abolished.
29.10.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen, speaking to the Finnish-Soviet Friendship Society, said that becoming a full member of Efta would not change Finland's trade or foreign policy position. He also said that other decisions to join international economic or technological co-operation did not affect the position, either. Cooperation with East and West did was not contradictory, but complementary.
30.10.
Finland's position in the Eureka project was discussed at the Paasikivi society. Professor Raimo Väyrynen said the situation involved no foreign policy problems as long as cooperation was of a civilian nature and not linked to the SDI programme. Chairman Jan-Magnus Jansson said it was necessary to deliberate political implications, which had been given only little attention before joining Eureka. The head of the National Board of Health, Matti Ruokola said that Finland had joined the project too hastily and thus the necessary assessment of political aspects had been ignored and must now be looked at in retrospect.

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4.11.
The committee on foreign investments gave its report to Minister for Trade and Industry Seppo Lindblom. The report proposed that the maximum shareholding and voting right which foreigners may have in Finnish firms should be increased from 20 to 33 1/3 per cent. Exceeding 20 per cent would need a Government decision. The Ministry of Justice had formerly proposed that the shareholding limit be 40 per cent of equity and the voting right to 25 per cent. The committee further proposed that the monitoring of Finnish investments abroad and foreign firms in Finland be tightened up.

Finland's full membership of Efta was approved by the Efta council in conjunction with a meeting of ministers in Geneva. Foreign Trade Minister Laine led the Finnish delegation.
5.–6.11.
Implementation of the Eureka project was discussed in Hanover at ministerial-level conference. Minister of Culture and Science Gustaf Björkstrand and Foreign Trade Minister Laine represented Finland. It was decided that a permanent secretariat would be appointed. The communiqué stated that the project was concentrating on civilian technology. The participating countries themselves would decide on each individual project. The conference outlined ten projects, of which Finland joined two.
5.11.
A Finnish-Soviet Friendship Month was celebrated in Kuopio. Minister of Agriculture and Forestry Toivo Yläjärvi stressed that young people should join the friendship societies. President Koivisto attended the function. Vice-Minister of Communications V.J. Glinka and Ambassador V.M. Sobolev represented the Soviet Union.
6.11.
The Finnish Communist Party stated that Finland must under no circumstances participate in any military co-operation within the Eureka project: in order to promote peaceful co-operation Eureka should also be open to socialist countries.
8.11.
The Foreign Ministry granted 22 million marks for development aid, of which 12.3 million is being used to buy fertilizers for Kenya.
10.11.
The Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian and Icelandic communications ministers reached agreement on the costs of the Tele-X satellite. The total for three-year experimental period will be 240 million marks, of which Finland is to pay 150 million. The Nordic broadcasting companies will begin transmission on two channels in autumn 1987.
11.–13.11.
A meeting of the Nordic Council in Mariehamn approved the implementations of the Tele-X satellite. It was also decided to commission a report on possible co-operation in refugee policy. The latter would include relations with the United Nations Refugee Commission and reporting on experiences in the countries concerned.
12.–13.11.
The Co-operation Commission of Finland and the CMEA convened in Bucharest. More than 20 recommendations dealing with co-operation projects were issued.
13.11.
Finland abstained in a UN General Assembly vote on a resolution demanding that the all foreign troops be withdrawn immediately from Afghanistan. 122 states voted for the resolution, 19 were against and 12 abstained.
15.11.
In an interview in Helsingin Sanomat the Chairman of the Christian League gave his support to the idea of non-socialist parties nominating a common presidential candidate, though he did not specify a nominee.
19.11.
In a discussion on Namibia at the UN General Assembly Finland demanded that the UN Namibia plan be immediately implemented. This was possible because South Africa had announced earlier that she would accept a proportional representation in the independence election in Namibia.
21.11.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen commented on President Reagan's and Party Leader Mikhail Gorbachev's Geneva discussions. Their agreement to continue a high-level dialogue will ameliorate both superpower relations and the international atmosphere. The momentum that they had given arms-control talks also aroused optimism, said Foreign Minister Väyrynen.
23.11.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen proposed that after the 1987 parliamentary elections a ministerial committee on trade policy be appointed. It could handle not only trade with the Soviet Union but also other central issues of foreign trade. The Foreign Trade Minister could continue to be the chairman of the Finnish-Soviet Commission for Economic Co-operation, said Väyrynen.
25.–26.11.
The Nordic trade ministers met in Helsinki. They agreed on recommendations to remove barriers to trade among the Nordic countries. The recommendations are based on 18 months of negotiations by civil servants.
25.11.–1.12.
The Finnish and Soviet trade union movements celebrated a friendship week. The Finnish organizers were the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions, the Central Committee of Public Servants and the Civil Servants' Union, the Central Organization of Professional Associations and the Confederation of Technical Employees' Organisations in Finland. Lidia Razulova, Chairman of the Azerbaijan trade union council and a member of the Supreme Committee led the delegation of VZSPS, Central Trade Organization of the Soviet Union.
26.11.
An appeal on the Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone, signed by the chairmen of all parliamentary parties except the Constitutional Party of the Right (one MP of 2001, was presented to other Nordic governments. The appeal stated that the governments should initiate joint Nordic preparations for the zone. This appeal showed the unanimity in Finland with regard to the initiative, said Prime Minister Sorsa.

Foreign Minister Väyrynen commented on the Norwegian Government's report on a Nordic nuclear- weapons-free zone. He found it promising that the report adjudged the Nordic Ministers' talks on the zone useful and proposed to complement these with contacts between officials. On the other hand, the Norwegian declaration continued to bind the question tightly to a wider arms limitation arrangement in Europe.
27.11.
At the annual general meeting of the Paasikivi Society bank director Jaakko Iloniemi was elected chairman to replace editor-in-chief, professor Jan-Magnus Jansson, who resigned after 10 years.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs appointed a committee to prepare a Finnish declaration on the Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone. This is to make preparations for a joint Nordic proposal and discussion with other countries. The declaration will consist of Finland's former statements and should be ready in June 1986.
29.–30.11.
A Nordic parliamentary meeting was held in Copenhagen to discuss a Nordic nuclear-weapons- free zone. 47 representatives of different political parties from all the Nordic countries were present as well as government representatives from all countries except Norway. Prime Minister Sorsa and Foreign Minister Väyrynen represented the Finnish Government. Speaker of the Parliament Erkki Pystynen expressed an appeal made by all the Finnish parliamentary parties for a Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone, It was proposed that another meeting be arranged in one or two years' time and that a working group be appointed to study the possibilities of creating a Nordic nuclear-weapons- free zone supported by a treaty.
29.11.
The bill on measures against South Africa was discussed in Parliament. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that the measures exceeded equivalent legislature in other Nordic countries. According to him breaking off trade or boycotts might not have the desired effect, but instead would cause unemployment in some branches of industry in Finland. Members of parliament demanded still further-reaching measures.

At a meeting of the third committee of the UN General Assembly Finland said she did not practise a policy of protest in her relations with countries that violate human rights, but tried to influence matters through international organizations or quiet diplomacy. Countries had a right to comment on violations of human rights in another country.

Joulukuu010203040506070809101112

1.12.
In an interview in Keskisuomalainan, Soviet Ambassador V.M. Sobo1ev stressed that it was important to create a credit system to enable Finland to execute large industrial building programmes in the Soviet Union and to increase barter trade.
3.12.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen gave a speech to the Finnish Foreign Trade Association on the role of Europe in Finland's trade policy. The neighbouring countries were the most important to our trade, although the most significant growth areas were outside Europe. Väyrynen said he considered it important to maintain Finland's competitiveness in Western European markets, towards which recent trade- and technology-related decisions had also been aimed. On the other hand, the reforms being begun in the Soviet economy might offer new opportunities for co-operation, which Finland must be able to exploit.
4.12.
In the UN committee on human rights Finland appealed to all parties to the Afghanistan crisis to respect human rights.
10.12.
In an interview in Suomenmaa the Finnish Ambassador to the United Nations Keijo Korhonen pointed out that democracy in foreign policy must be channelled through Parliament. Individual non-governmental organizations must not manipulate foreign policy, although the Government should listen to their opinions, too.
11.12.
Prime Minister Sorsa said that he personally believed that the Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone will be created in the 1990s. In an interview with the Swedish news agency TT he said that public opinion in Finland, Sweden and Denmark was strongly in favour of the zone.
12.12.
In an interview in Sosialistinen Aikakauslehti President Koivisto said that Finland's foreign policy had shifted neither east- nor westwards. Finland had always acted in Efta practically as a full member and it was now possible to confirm full membership formally. According to the President, the Eureka project had been conceived to serve civilian purposes and Finland regarded this as her point of departure. Similar co-operation with the Soviet Union and CMEA countries had been conducted under scientific- technological agreements. He also noted that there had not been room for significant initiatives in recent years in the field of foreign policy.
15.–19.12.
A Finnish delegation visited Moscow to negotiate visible trade in 1986. Foreign Trade Minister Laine and his Soviet counterpart Boris Aristov signed an agreement covering trade, which will amounts to 38 billion marks. Finland will import about 9 million tonnes of oil and gas imports will increase to 1.2 mill.cbms. Imports of machines and plant will increase by 70 per cent to 1.3 billion marks. Export of Finnish metal products will total about 8.5 billion, which is 45 per cent of total exports. Both project and construction exports will be worth 11 billion. The Finnish-Soviet Chamber of commerce held its annual meeting in conjunction with the visit.
16.12.
Finland's Refugee Help Society celebrated its 20th anniversary on Human Rights' Day. Chairperson Aune Jääskinen said that Finland could receive at least 3,000 refugees without upsetting the economic or social balance in the country. However, Finland must decide herself on the number of refugees and assume responsibility their welfare.
16.–19.12.
A delegation of four trade union organizations led by Chairman Pertti Viinan en met representatives of the VZSPS in Moscow. The matters discussed included trade-union co-operation and widening economic and trade links between the two countries.
17.12.
Foreign Minister Väyrynen commented on the 40th UN session by saying that a positive phase was beginning in the field of international politics. The General Assembly was not advancing on disarmament questions, but open crises were being avoided and the atmosphere was positive. However, there had been no progress towards solving regional crises. Väyrynen said that every country must take independent steps against South Africa since the UN Security Council had not arrived at binding resolutions.
18.12.
The Praesidium of the Nordic Council, the Nordic prime ministers and ministers for co-operation convened in Helsinki to mark the 30th anniversary of Finnish membership. President Koivisto attended a reception in the parliament. The Council issued a statement stressing the civilian technological nature of the Eureka project and opportunities for small and medium-sized companies to participate. A report on Nordic companies was published. It presented a six-item programme to increase economic co-operation between the Nordic countries.
31.12.
The President promulgated legislation giving the Government the power to restrict economic relations with South Africa. The act prohibits loans, grants and patents to South Africa or Namibia and restricts communications and traffic with the former. A decree prohibits investments in the country. These measures take effect at the beginning of 1986.
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