År 1979 i Finlands utrikespolitik

Januari010203040506070809101112

1.1.
Finland's balance of trade no longer showed any reason for concern, President Kekkonen said in his New Year's speech. He also stressed the importance of arms control and hoped that the superpowers could agree on arms limitations. He stated his concern over the continuing arms race.
4.1.
The Nordic Secretariat for Culture decided to establish a Nordic language institute in Helsinki.
5.1.
Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen said that the television series "The Men of War and Peace” did not harm Finnish-Soviet relations. The programme, a television play about Finnish-Soviet relations before and during World War II, had launched a lively debate. According to Korhonen, the play explained to Finns how, from a difficult starting point, present Finnish-Soviet relations were built.
11.1.
Finland and Albania signed an agreement on cultural cooperation.
12.1.
An agreement between Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark on municipal cooperation was signed.
An agreement on economic, industrial and technical cooperation between Finland and Turkey was reached.
15.1.
The Nordic Ministers of Education and Culture agreed upon an exchange programme for researchers.
16.1.
The OECD published a survey on development cooperation. According to the survey Finland's assistance to the developing countries had been in 1977 0.16 % of the GNP. The survey listed Finland the second lowest among the OECD countries.

Finland has promised to raise her assistance to 0.32 % of the GNP by the year 1982.
19.1.
An agreement between Finland and Thailand, drawn up to limit and control Thailand's exports of certain garments to Finland, was reached.
23.1.
Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee criticised the growing bureaucracy in Nordic cooperation.
In reply to a question in Parliament, Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that Vietnam's actions in Kampuchea had not led to discussions on the reduction of Nordic assistance to Vietnam. The Prime Minister of Sweden, Ola Ulisten, had earlier said in an interview with the New York Times that the Nordic countries might reconsider their aid contributions to Vietnam if it does not withdraw its troops from Kampuchea.
25.1.
Finland and Malaysia signed an agreement designed to limit and control Malaysia's exports of certain garments to Finland.
26.1.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen commented on a Gallup survey on foreign policy published by Helsingin Sanomat. According to the survey the share of those satisfied with the way Finnish foreign policy was conducted had decreased and the share of those thinking it was falling too much to the East had increased from a similar survey six years earlier. According to Väyrynen the conclusions drawn from the survey in the lively debate that followed, were overhasty. The results of the survey showed the importance of correct information on foreign policy. Due to lack of information the survey actually did not tell people's opinion on the success or failure of foreign policy. Other surveys, with a share of about 90 per cent being satisfied with Finnish foreign policy, and also the latest presidential elections with 80 per cent backing the coalition behind president Kekkonen have shown that Finnish foreign policy has a strong backing, Väyrynen said.

Ilkka-Christian Björklund, M.P. of the Finnish People's Democratic League (SKDL), accused the officials of mistreating foreigners in Finland. He suggested that a special agency should be founded to safeguard the rights of foreign workers and students in Finland. At the beginning of 1979 4,300 foreigners had work permits in Finland.

International sugar agreement from 1977.

Programme concerning scientific, educational and cultural exchange between Finland and Albania.

Agreement on long-term economic, industrial and technological cooperation between Finland and Romania.

Februari010203040506070809101112

1.2.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that Finland was not going to participate in new development programmes in Vietnam because the Committee on Development Cooperation (report of 1978) had recommended that governments should not give aid to countries whose foreign policy was based on aggression or whose domestic policy violated human rights.
2.2.
Minister of Agriculture Johannes Virolainen stressed the importance of both arms control and the strengthening of detente in his speech at the World Peace Council meeting in Berlin.
In his speech at the World Peace Council meeting in Berlin, Minister of Agriculture Johannes Virolainen stressed the importance of the SALT II Treaty.
5.–6.2.
The Socialist International working group for disarmament, led by Mr. Kalevi Sorsa, Chairman of the Social Democratic Party, met in Vienna. During the meeting, Mr. Sorsa met, among others, the Chanchellor of Austria, Mr. Bruno Kreisky.
6.2.
The Archbishop of the Finnish Lutheran Church, Mikko Juva, criticised the modest level of Finnish development cooperation. Finland's actions are not in harmony with words and promises, the Archbishop said. The Information Centre of Finland's Lutheran Church had earlier conducted a survey asking political parties about their attitudes towards development cooperation, and all the parties had agreed that Finland should raise her aid to the developing countries. The Lutheran Church of Finland also participates in development cooperation; in 1979 the church used 0.64% of its total budget for development aid.
9.2.
An agreement between Finland and Greece on international transport by road was signed.
11.2.
According to Foreign Trade statistics, Finland's arms exports amounted to 9 million FIM. The main importers were Sweden and Qatar. In 1977, arms exports reached a total of 12 million FIM.
17.2.
In an interview with the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation, President Kekkonen wished that immigration from Finland to Sweden could be reduced by creating new jobs in the less developed areas of Finland. He also welcomed Swedish capital to Finland.
19.2.
The Nordic Foreign Ministers urged all sides in the Far Eastern conflict to restore peace in the area, before giving their full support to both the U.N. Security Council and its General Secretary.
The Nordic Council's 27th plenary session began in Stockholm. Finnish M.P. Erkki Tuomioja proposed that the Nordic countries should seek new roads to security, as the Nordic countries are becoming involved in the arms race between the great powers. To avoid this, the Nordic countries should discuss security and policies in greater detail and increase their cooperation, Tuomioja stressed. Tuomioja's speech was strongly criticised; the Council does not normally discuss security policies and things should stay that way, the critics emphasised.
At their meeting in Stockholm, the Nordic Foreign Ministers gave their support to the General Secretary of the United Nations in his efforts to restore peace in the Far East.
20.2.
According to statistics published by the Bank of Finland, Finland's gross long-term foreign debts were 35 444 million FIM at the beginning of 1979. By the end of the same year, total debts stood at 35 371 million FIM.
20.2.
Finland and Morocco signed an agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.
21.2.
President Kekkonen sent his congratulations to Soviet Prime Minister Aleksei Kosygin on his 75th birthday.
22.2.
Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa inaugurated the second phase of the Svetogorsk cellulose and paper complex. About 1,400 Finns worked on this Finnish-Soviet cooperation project.
23.2.
Finland and Egypt signed an agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.
Finland recognised Dominica and Saint Lucia.
26.2.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that the conflict between China and Vietnam should be solved in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. Väyrynen also stressed in his statement that the conflict endangered world peace and hoped that China would withdraw her troops from Vietnam.
27.–28.2.
The Prime Minister of Sweden, Ola Ullsten, visited Finland. Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa hoped that Finland and Sweden could increase their economic cooperation in Third World countries.

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2.3.
A Finnish-Hungarian joint economic commission met in Budapest. During the four preceding years, trade between Finland and Hungary had doubled.
5.3.
International Political Surveys Inc. analysed the susceptibility to crisis of 60 nations. Finland's susceptibility rate was 1 per cent, meaning it was one of the lowest. Iran received the highest rating: 9.1 per cent.
The OECD published its survey concerning the economic situation in Finland, which predicted that economic growth would continue in 1979. The survey also predicted economic growth of 4% and a surplus in the balance of trade. Furthermore, the survey gave credit to Finland's economic policy in general.
According to statistics published by the Foreign Ministry Commercial Department, border trade between Finland and the Soviet Union had decreased by one per cent. The value of border trade in 1978 was about 270 million FIM.
6.–8.3.
A solidarity conference for Vietnam was held in Espoo.
8.3.
The World Bank published its GNP ranking list. Finland's GNP per capita was in 1977 6 150 dollars, which put Finland on 18th place in the ranking list. 1.8. The Bank Federation of Switzerland published its own list. Also that ranked Finland as 18th.
9.–10.3.
The Conservative Party was the biggest winner in the Parliamentary elections. The results were as follows: SKDL (the Finnish People's Democratic League) 35 seats (-5), the Social Democratic Party 52 (-2), the Centre Party 36 (-3), the Liberal People's Party 4 (-5), the Swedish People's Party 10 (0), the Finnish Rural Party 7 (+5), the National Coalition (Conservative) Party 47 (+12).
9.3.
Agreement on the transportation of dangerous items in Europe.

Agreement on fishing by the border river Teno between Finland and Norway.

Finnish-Soviet agreement customs of certain products.

Finnish-Indian agreement founding a joint economic commission.
10.3.
Pravda's Nordic correspondent, Jun Kuznetsov, wrote about the Finnish Parliamentary elections, which were due to be held later in March. According to him, progressive people in Finland were worried about the possibility of the Conservatives getting seats in the Cabinet after the elections. The Conservative leader, Harri Holkeri, did not comment on the article, but stressed that the Conservative Party had in its actions shown that it supports Finnish foreign policy. The West German daily Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung commented on the article; according to FAZ, Kuznetsov's article "was Moscow's interference in the Finnish elections”.
11.3.
The Foreign Ministry Department of Development Cooperation published a list of Finns working on development projects in developing countries. According to the department, 150 Finns were working in 29 countries.
15.3.
In a Gallup survey published by Helsingin Sanomat, the Cabinet received a "school grade” of 6.8 - the lowest possible grade was 4 and the highest 10. Foreign policy got an 8.
16.3.
A Finnish-Malaysian agreement, designed to limit and control Malaysia’s exports of certain garments Finland, was reached.
19.3.
Defence Minister Taisto Tähkämaa said that Finland's arms exports did not contradict the country’s policy of neutrality. On an international scale, Finnish arms exports were very limited, Tähkämaa stressed.
The commercial attaché of the Soviet Union, Mr. M.V. Gubanov, suggested that Finland and the Soviet Union should increase their trade to 3 billion roubles per year by 1986. The present 5-year skeleton agreement means Finnish-Soviet trade will total about 10.5 billion roubles, Gubanov estimated.
21.–25.3.
The joint Finnish-Iraqi economic commission met in Baghdad.
23.3.
A Finnish-Polish agreement preventing double taxation was signed.
27.3.
The Palestinians' right to their own home country and Israel's withdrawal from the occupied areas are the basic conditions for a settlement in the Middle East, the Cabinet said in a statement. The statement also greeted the Egypt-Israeli peace treaty and hoped it would promote an overall settlement in the Middle East.
29.–30.3.
The Nordic Foreign Ministers met in Copenhagen. The ministers hoped that the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel would be a step towards a peaceful solution in the Middle East based on the U.N. Security Council's resolutions 242 and 338. The ministers condemned Rhodesia's attacks on Mozambique and Zambia, and also called for joint actions against the South African government.
29.–30.3.
At their meeting in Copenhagen, the Nordic Foreign Ministers stressed that permanent peace in the Middle East is possible only on the basis of resolutions 242 and 338 of the U.N. Security Council. The ministers also agreed on common actions against the apartheid system of South Africa.
31.3.
Rauma-Repola Co. (a private Finnish shipbuilder) sold three oil drilling rigs worth 900 million FIM to the Soviet Union.

April010203040506070809101112

6.–8.4.
Mr. Kalevi Sorsa represented the Finnish Social Democrats at the French Socialist Party Congress.
6.4.
The 31st anniversary of the FCMA Treaty was celebrated in Finland and in the Soviet Union. The heads of states sent each other telegrams and the countries exchanged delegations.
Speaking at the 31st anniversary celebration of the FCMA, Treaty Minister of Agriculture Johannes Virolainen said that the Soviet Union is the largest importer of Finnish agricultural products. The Soviet speaker, V.A. Demtshenko, said that the Long-term Programme for the Development and Intensification of Economic, Commercial, Industrial, and Scientific and Technical Cooperation was the greatest achievement in mutual economic relations. The Soviet Union imported 40% of Finland's machinery exports, 40-60 % of shipbuilding exports and about one-third of furniture, textile and chemical exports, Demtshenko said.
11.4.
An Agreement between Finland and the FRG on cultural cooperation was reached.
18.4.
The Cabinet decided to give 100,000 USD in emergency aid to the victims of an earthquake in Yugoslavia.
19.–21.4.
A Pugwash Symposium on disarmament was held in Helsinki. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that Finland regards the second review conference of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty as very important.
20.4.
The Vice-President of the United States, Walter Mondale, met President Kekkonen during his visit to Finland. President Kekkonen stressed the deep common heritage between the two nations. Mondale said that the term "Finlandisation” has elements that hamper communication.
23.4.
The State Economy Controllers' Office criticised in its annual report the Foreign Ministry for not ensuring that Finland would recuperate the costs of the Finnish contingent involved in U.N. missions.
Finland and the FRG signed agreement on social care and employment.
24.4.
Finland and Venezuela signed an agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.
25.4.
Foreign Ministry officials stressed that the costs and recuperating them was not the most important issue when Finland decided to send a contingent to the U.N.. The most important factors had been political, and, furthermore, the contingent also supported Finland's policy of neutrality.
26.4.
The West German daily Die Welt promised it would not use the term "finlandisation” any longer, because Finns find the term offensive. The meaning of the term could also be expressed in other words, the daily wrote. The Finnish press greeted the promise with satisfaction (see the article by Hannes Saarinen in this year’s Yearbook).
27.4.
The meeting of the joint Finnish-Czechoslovakian economic commission, which had been held in Helsinki, ended.
The meeting of the joint Finnish-GDR economic commission, which had been held in Helsinki, ended.
30.4.
Finland established diplomatic relations with Mauritius and Guinea-Bissau.

Maj010203040506070809101112

2.5.
The Finnish-Cuban Chamber of Commerce was founded in Helsinki.
4.5.
Par Stenbäck, a M.P. of the Swedish People's Party, made a question in Parliament of why Finland had not raised her support to UNICEF. Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that Finland was looking for ways of giving more support to UNICEF's programs. According to Väyrynen Finland would like to link the support to the international programme of trying to raise women's standard of living.

Finnish-Japanese agreement cultural cooperation was ratified.
7.–11.5.
President Kekkonen visited the Federal Republic of Germany. During the visit Kekkonen met Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, President Walter Scheel, SPD Chairman Willy Brandt, CDU Chairman Helmut Kohl and Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Gencher. This was the first visit of the President of Finland to the Federal Republic of Germany. Economic cooperation was the main topic in the discussions. Kekkonen also spoke at the Übersee Club in Hamburg where he stressed Finland's right to pursue her policy of neutrality. Kekkonen also emphasized the importance at making Scandinavia a nuclear-free area. See Documentary in this Yearbook.
9.5.
During his official visit to the Federal Republic of Germany President Kekkonen gave a speech at the Übersee-Club in Hamburg. He urged the great powers to avoid decisions that could begin a new arms race. He stressed also that a non-nuclear status is a necessary condition for the Nordic balance.

In his speech at the Übersee Club in Hamburg President Kekkonen urged the great powers to avoid actions that could open up the arms race again. See Documentary.
11.5.
Finnish-Austrian agreement on cultural cooperation.

Finnish-Yugoslavian agreement on tourism cooperation.
12.5.
The U.S. Ambassador in Helsinki Rozanne Ridgway said that the trade between Finland and the United States was in balance. The imports from the United States were 5 % of the total imports to Finland. The United States is the fifth largest importer of Finnish exports.
15.–20.5.
The Socialist International working group for disarmament led by Mr. Sorsa visited the United States and met President Carter and officials in charge of disarmament.
15.5.
A Finnish engineering company Ekono concluded an agreement worth 800 Mmk on building a cellulose and paper factory in the Philippines. The agreement was one of the biggest the Finnish companies had ever got abroad.

Finland signed together with six other West-European countries an agreement on an information communication satellite.
16.5.
The Finnish members of the International Press Institute condemned the restrictions the GDR government had imposed upon the working conditions of foreign journalists.
17.5.
Minister of Justice Paavo Nikula in an answer to a question in Parliament denied that NATO had done test flights in Lappland. Swedish Prime Minister Ola Ullsten had earlier said that NATO-countries had tested their military planes in Northern Sweden.
18.5.
Convention on the prevention pollution of seas.
21.–25.5.
A UNIDO Seminar on industrial cooperation was held in Espoo, Finland. The participants were from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka.
21.5.
Speaking at the Ministerial Council of EFTA Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen stressed the importance of the results and the follow-up of the GATT's so called Tokio round. EFTA should take regional aspects of economic development more into account, Väyrynen said.

Three Finnish companies Outokumpu Oy, Kone Dy and Rauma-Repola Oy concluded an agreement with the Philippines worth 220 Mmk.
23.5.
A commercial exhibition by the Finnish exporters, Fintehstroi 79, was opened in Leningrad.
26.5.
President Kekkonen appointed Finland's 61st Cabinet. President of the Bank of Finland Mauno Koivisto (social democrat) was appointed Prime Minister, the Centre Party vice- chairman Paavo Väyrynen Foreign Minister and Esko Rekola Minister of Foreign Trade. The seats in the Cabinet were distributed as follows:Social Democratic Party 5, Centre Party 6, Finnish People's Democratic League 3, Swedish People's Party 2, and one professional minister.
29.5.
The Finnish-Chinese trade will grow faster and get new dimensions, said Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen in his speech at the signing of the Finnish-Chinese agreement on economic, scientific and technical cooperation.

Finland and China signed agreement on studying economic, industrial and technological cooperation.
30.5.
Finland and Egypt signed a traffic agreement.

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1.6.
An agreement between Finland, Norway and Sweden to open a flight route from Qulu, Finland, to Luulaja and Kiruna, Sweden, to Tromso, Norway.

Finnish-Belgian air traffic agreement.

Finland established diplomatic relations with the Yemen Democratic Republic.
7.6.
A joint Finnish-Soviet exhibition on the FCMA Treaty based on collections from Finnish and Soviet archives was opened in Moscow.
10.6.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that the National Coalition (Conservative) Party is divided into two wings: one centre-orientated wing that could cooperate in the Cabinet and one conservative wing. According to Väyrynen the political left was not willing to cooperate with the conservative wing and this was the reason to the conservatives being left out of the Cabinet.
11.–13.6.
Poland's Foreign Minister Emil Wojtaszek visited Finland. The Finnish hosts expressed their concern over the imbalance in the Finnish-Polish trade. Foreign Minister Wojtaszek said that the work of the joint economic commission will help to balance the trade. The main reason for the imbalance in the trade is Finland's coal exports from Poland.
12.6.
Iraq was among the most promising marketing areas of the Finnish construction industry, said Finland's Ambassador to Iraq Jan Groop. In 1979 the total value of Finnish construction projects in Iraq was 2 billion marks.
13.–14.6.
The Finnish Institute of International Affairs organized its first Finnish-American Conference. The subject was "Regional and subregional aspects of detente”.
13.6.
According to the statistics published by the Bank of Finland the export of investment capital had been 257 Mmk. In 1978. That was 36 Mmk less than the year before. The import of investment capital had been 141 Mmk, 47 Mmk less than the year before. In the beginning of 1979 there were 887 companies with at least 20 % of foreign ownership.

Speaking at the OECD Ministerial Council Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen proposed more research on the relationship between environment and the structure of the world economy. Industrialized countries must stop the wasting of natural resources, Väyrynen said. Väyrynen also stressed the need to further develop the free trade system.
18.6.
Johannes Virolainen, chairman of the Centre Party, also studied the reasons for the conservatives being left out of the Cabinet. In the weekly Suomen Kuvalehti Virolainen said that the conservatives were left out because of "general reasons which the Conservative Party could not change”. This interview launched a lively debate about the "general reasons”. 20.6. The West German daily Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeituing gave its interpretation of the "general reasons”. The conservatives were left out because of the Soviet Union, FAZ concluded. 20.6. President Kekkonen gave a statement in which he strongly condemned Virolainen's views, which according to Kekkonen had nothing to do with reality. Virolainen later said that his words had been misinterpreted. He had not referred to foreign policy, but to domestic policy. The "general reasons” were domestic, Virolainen stressed.

Finland expressed its satisfaction over the signing of the SALT II Treaty in Vienna.

The Cabinet greeted the signing of the SALT II Treaty.
18.–19.6.
A seminar on the Nordic economy was held in Tampere, Finland. The seminar was arranged under the auspices of the Nordic Council.
19.6.
Finland and Belgium signed agreement on cultural exchange.
22.6.
Prime Minister Koivisto also stressed the point that the reasons Why the Conservative Party was left out of the Cabinet were domestic. The political left had not been willing to cooperate with the conservatives in the Cabinet, Conservative or leftist affiliation had nothing to do with the relations between Finland and the Soviet Union, Koivisto emphasized.
25.6.
The Foreign Ministry announced that Finland would rather give material help to the Vietnamese refugees, the so called boat people, than take refugees to Finland. The final decision was postponed.
26.6.
EFTA and Spain signed a free- trade agreement.
30.6.
Valmet (a state-owned shipbuilder) sold two ro-ro vessels to the Soviet Union. The value of the order was 400 Mmk.

Finnish-Jordanian air traffic agreement.

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2.–6.7.
The joint Finnish-Bulgarian economic commission met.
4.7.
The Cabinet decided to take about 100 boat people to Finland. The decision was preceded by a lively debate. The public opinion was strongly in favour of taking refugees to Finland. 5.7. The Cabinet gave 4 Mmk to the Red Cross and UNHCR for help to the refugees. 21.7. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said in the international conference, in Geneva, on the problem of Indo-Chinese refugees that he was afraid the refugees would have difficulties in adjusting to the Finnish way of life and the Finnish climate. Finland took refugees to Finland only because of the high tension created by conflicts in Indo-China.
14.7.
Rauma-Repola Co (a private shipbuilder, machinebuilder, paper producer etc.) and the Soviet V/D Sudimport concluded an agreement on eight support ships to a total value of 400 Mmk.
18.7.
The Foreign Ministry gave the Red Cross 100 000 mk for emergency help in Nicaragua.

The Foreign Ministry gave 22 civic organisations 512 000 mk for development cooperation. Among the organisations were the Finnish Red Cross, UNICEF of Finland and political and trade union organisations.
25.7.
Finland withdrew the Finnish contingent from Sinai. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen gave the Finnish soldiers credit for doing their duty well. Väyrynen said that Finland is willing to contribute men to the U.N. peace-keeping forces also in the future.
27.7.
Defence Forces published a study on conscripts' willingness to defend Finland, 95 per cent of those who answered said that Finland should be defended in a state of aggression. 1.5 per cent of those who answered did not find defence useful. In case of a nuclear attack about 50 per cent still saw defence meaningful.
28.7.
In a Gallup survey published by Ilta-Sanomat Sweden and the Soviet Union were regarded as Finland's "best friends”. 65 per cent of those who answered regarded both Sweden and the Soviet Union as Finland's "best friends”. 46 per cent regarded Norway as Finland's "best friend” and 34 per cent Denmark.
30.7.
Some shooting was reported to have taken place on the Soviet side of the Finnish-Soviet border. According to an inquiry by the Finnish border authorities none of the bullets were found on Finnish territory. The press strongly criticized the Frontier Guard of trying to cover up the shooting.

Augusti010203040506070809101112

1.8.
Finland and Egypt signed three development cooperation agreements.
2.–12.8.
The Socialist International working group for disarmament visited Sri Lanka, then the chairman Country of the Non-Aligned Movement.
3.8.
Finland was elected to the Executive Committee of the UNHCR.
6.8.
The first group of refugees arrived in Finland. The second group arrived one week later.

A seminar on fibreboard industry was held in Kotka, Finland. The seminar lasted until the end of August. The participants were from 16 developing countries.
8.8.
In his speech in Turku Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that none of the Nordic countries is willing to change its security policy. Development in military technology has put pressures upon each nation, Väyrynen said.
14.8.
An international commission on human rights gave Finland credit for observing the General Agreement on Civil and Political Rights.
17.8.
Finland and the Soviet Union signed a long-term action programme concerning the development of border trade.
20.8.
In a speech to Finnish ambassadors abroad Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that Finland's aim is to have the second CSCE follow- up meeting at a ministerial level. The meeting should concentrate, according to Väyrynen, on detente and on developing confidence building measures.
22.8.
The Foreign Ministry gave 200 000 mk to UNHCR for its help programmes in Nicaragua.
23.8.
In a statement at the U.N. conference on scientific and technological development Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that the transfer of scientific knowledge and technology from the developed countries to the developing countries should be encouraged. He also renewed Finland's promise to raise her contribution to the development cooperation to 0.32 % of the GNP by the year 1982.

The competitiveness of Finnish products had during the last three years become better, the Finnish Employers' Confederation announced. The Confederation's survey gave the credit for better competitiveness to devaluations of Fmk and to low employment costs.
24.8.
On the request of the Secretary General Finland strengthened its contingent in Golan from 157 to 230 men.

Finland and Norway signed agreement on founding a joint cultural fund.

Finland recognized Kiribati.
31.8.–1.9.
Nordic Foreign Ministers met in Reykjavik. The ministers condemned the South African government and stressed global responsibility in solving the refugee problem. They also expressed their satisfaction over the signing of the SALT II Treaty.

September010203040506070809101112

1.9.
At their meeting in Reykjavik the Nordic Foreign Ministers condemned the apartheid system of South Africa. They also stressed the international responsibility to help refugees and said that the Nordic countries are willing to do their best in resolving the problem of refugees.
5.9.
Minister of Interior Eino Uusitalo (Center Party) strongly pointed out that Finland should keep herself active in the field of disarmament.
6.9.
During Foreign Trade Minister Esko Rekola's visit to Bulgaria the two countries signed an agreement on a copper smelting works of 200 Mmk from Finland to Bulgaria.
7.9.
Finnish-Turkish agreement cultural cooperation.

Finland and Austria signed cooperation programme for cultural exchange.

Finland and Iraq signed a traffic agreement.
10.–15.9.
A Soviet press delegation visited Finland. The delegation attended a Finnish-Soviet press symposium. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen addressed the symposium. The Finnish-Soviet press relations are good, he stressed. He also paid attention to the importance of the CSCE Final Document in improving the working conditions of journalists working abroad.
11.–23.9.
The PU General Assembly passed a resolution that urged governments and parliaments to avoid helping the South African government. The resolution was introduced by a Finnish M.P. Terhi Nieminen-Mäkynen (Lib).
11.–15.9.
The European Committee of WHO met in Helsinki.
13.9.
According to a DECO report Finland's gross tax rate was 41.2 % in 1977. In 1978 it was 38.9%.

Finland and Republic of Korea signed an agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.
14.9.
In the Parliamentary debate about the budget for 1980 Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that Finland's contribution to the development cooperation was insufficient. The budget for 1980 increased development cooperation to 0.22 % of the GNP.
18.9.
Finland and Hungary signed programme concerning cooperation in medicine, health and social care.

The Academy of Finland and the Austrian Academy of Sciences an agreement on scientific cooperation.

Finland and Syria signed agreement on international transport by road.
19.–20.9.
Finnish and Soviet trade union leaders met in Kostamus, in the Soviet Union.
19.9.
Finland signed a convention on the protection of threatened animals and flora in Europe.
20.9.
The information about Finland's arms exports in the SIPRI Yearbook 1979 were according to the Army Headquarters "incorrect and misleading”. According to SIPRI statistics Finland's arms exports were 14 times higher than the Army Headquarters had reported. SIPRI corrected the erroneous information later.

The chief of Soviet news agency APN's Helsinki office Vasili Zaitshikov said that Soviet journalists have never written anything that could harm Finnish-Soviet relations. Instead he accused "Western media” of attacking the good relations between Finland and the Soviet Union.
21.9.
The Finnish Markka was revaluated by 2 per cent.

Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said in his speech in Helsinki that Finland will increase the number of development cooperation recipients.
25.9.
Finland and the Soviet Union signed a five-year long-term trade agreement for the period 1981-1985.
26.9.
Kalevi Sorsa, Chairman of the Social Democratic Party, expressed his concern over the slow progress in the field of arms control. In his speech at the Paasikivi-Society he also suggested that Finland should increase her support to research on disarmament.

Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen spoke in the general debate of the UNGA. Ha said that the most important challenges of the 1980's were disarmament and detente. He said that Finland finds it important to promote the NIEO which should be based on ecological principles. The SALT II Treaty was, according to Väyrynen, a decisive although limited step towards disarmament.
27.9.
Finnish-Spanish agreement cultural exchange was signed.

Oktober010203040506070809101112

1.–4.10.
The Socialist International working group for disarmament led by Mr. Kalevi Sorsa visited the Soviet Union. The group met among others Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev.
2.–3.10.
The nine European neutral and non-aligned countries met in Stockholm to discuss the second CSCE follow-up meeting in Madrid in 1980.
16.10.
Parliament accepted Finnish- Australian agreement on the transfer of nuclear material.
19.10.
In his statement in the First Committee of UNGA Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen proposed arms control and disarmament negotiations that would cover all categories of weapons and comprise the whole of Europe with the full participation of all governments concerned. On the basis of all relevant initiatives and suggestions and through appropriate consultation and negotiation the outline for a comprehensive framework for a European disarmament programme could be defined, Korhonen said.

Agreement on patents trade marks between Finland and Republic of Korea.
25.10.
In his speech at a seminar arranged by the Advisory Board of Disarmament Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that Finland's aim is to try to channel various suggestions on disarmament to a wider negotiation process. He also expressed his concern over the cooling down of international climate end over the dangers of a possible new arms race.
26.10.
Finnish-Chinese trade agreement.
31.10.
Nordic Prime Ministers and Nordic Cooperation Ministers met in Reykjavik. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland decided to put pressure upon the U.N. to get back the money that these countries had given to maintain their peacekeeping troops. Finland's Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto said that all the Nordic countries were dissatisfied with the Nordic cooperation. The Nordic Council should concentrate more on practical problems, Koivisto said.

In their meeting in Reykjavik the Nordic Prime Ministers and Ministers of Nordic Cooperation decided to put pressure upon the U.N. to get compensation for the costs of the contingents on various U.N. missions.

Finnish-Argentine agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.

November010203040506070809101112

1.11.
In an interview for the Soviet news agency APN President Kekkonen said that Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev's initiative to strengthen European security was a positive gesture. The European arms limitation talks should be speeded up, Kekkonen said.

The Nordic countries gave a joint memorandum about nuclear proliferation to the UNGA.

In his statement for the Soviet news agency APN President Kekkonen urged a hurrying of the preparations of the second follow-up meeting.

In his statement to the Soviet news agency APN President Kekkonen said that Finland's attitude towards Leonid Brezhnev's initiative to reduce armaments in Europe was positive. Kekkonen also stressed the importance of European arms control and of disarmament negotiations.

The Nordic Countries gave to the UNGA a joint memorandum on nuclear proliferation.

Academy of Finland and Academy of Sciences of the GDR signed an agreement on scientific cooperation.
2.–4.11.
The Finnish-Soviet Friendship Society held its 13th General Conference. President Kekkonen greeted the Conference. Former Premier Martti Miettunen was re-elected the president of the society.
7.11.
President Kekkonen, Speaker of the Parliament Virolainen, Prime Minister Koivisto and Foreign Minister Väyrynen greeted the Soviet leaders on the 62nd anniversary of the Soviet October Revolution.
8.11.
A committee on refugees proposed that Finland should rather give help than take refugees to Finland. The help should be increased to the Nordic level. 9.11. The Cabinet gave 100 000 mk to support the placing of refugees to developing countries. The Cabinet also decided to take 20 more refugees from Vietnam and Malesia to Finland.

A Committee on Refugees gave its report to Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen. The Committee recommended that instead of taking refugees to Finland, the government should add Finland's aid to refugees.
9.11.
Finnish-Columbian agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.
11.–17.11.
The meeting of the joint Finnish-CMEA commission was held in Havana. Between Finland and the CMEA there are 25 various agreements on economic, scientific and technical cooperation.
14.11.
The U.N. General Assembly passed a resolution demanding a withdrawal of all foreign troops from Kampuchea. Finland abstained in the vote because Finland's policy of neutrality enjoins Finland to refrain from taking sides in disputes between the great powers.

Finland abstained in the vote over the representation of Kampuchea in the UNGA. The problem of Kampuchea was regarded as a dispute between the great powers.

Finland and the Soviet Union signed a cooperation programme health care, medicine and social for the period 1980—1981.
16.11.
The Cabinet introduced an additional budget for the year in which the Cabinet requested about 20 Mmk increase of Finnish development cooperation funds.

Finnish-Swedish agreement on usage of gambling slot-machines on ships sailing between Finland Sweden. These machines are in Sweden.

Changes in the Finnish- Soviet agreement on behaviour the borderline and on clearing incidents at the border.
19.11.
A Finnish-Soviet seminar on economic cooperation began in Helsinki. Finland's Minister of Labour Arvo Aalto hoped for more economic cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union. Soviet commercial attaché MV Gubanov wished more cooperation in third countries.
20.11.
Ilkka-Christian Björklund, M.P. of SKDL, opposed the idea of including the Kola Peninsula to the Nordic nuclear-free-zone. In his speech at the Paasikivi-Society in Rovaniemi he stressed that this would change the present security pattern in Scandinavia and not confirm it. The guarantees of the great powers were, however, a most essential part of a nuclear-free North.
22.11.
In an answer to a question in Parliament Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen emphasized that Finland does not export arms to areas where the great powers have a conflict of interests. He denied that Finland exports arms to Far Eastern conflict areas. He also stressed that Finland has a permanent arms embargo to Rhodesia and South Africa.
24.11.
Pseudonym Yuri Komissaroy, a Soviet expert on Finland, in his article published in the Finnish weekly Suomen Kuvalehti, wrote that the Euro-missiles threaten Soviet Union's North-Western territory. The FCMA Treaty enjoins Finland an obligation to defend her aerial integrity, Komissarov stressed.

NATO's decision to deploy new nuclear weapons to Europe could also affect Scandinavia, Foreign Minister Väyrynen said at Centre Party meeting in Savonlinna. The possible deployment of Euro-missiles in Europe launched a lively discussion in Finland.
29.11.
Finland and Libya signed agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.
30.11.
Finnish-Chinese agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation.

Finnish-Yugoslavian agreement on veterinary medicine.

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3.–7.12.
Soviet Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev visited Finland to take part in the meeting of the joint economic commission. The joint commission agreed on having a special working group on cooperation in other countries.
4.–6.12.
Vice-Chairman of the Commission of the European Community Mr. Wilhelm Haferkamp visited Finland. During his visit Finland and the European Community decided to establish three working groups to study monetary policies, energy and environmental problems.
5.12.
Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen suggested new safeguard measures to increase the credibility of safeguards systems of new nuclear plants. Korhonen spoke at the IAEA general assembly in New Delhi.

Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen proposed in the IAEA Assembly in New Delhi internationally agreed safeguards qualifications to be adopted. These would make the safeguards systems of nuclear plants more credible, Korhonen said.
6.12.
In his Independence Day address President Kekkonen expressed his deep concern over the international situation. Kekkonen was most concerned about the state of world economy and the continuing arms race. Finland's possibilities to adjust itself to the present situation were however good, Kekkonen stated.

President Kekkonen expressed his worry over the arms race in his Independence Day address.
7.12.
UNHCR appealed to Finland to get more money to help the Kampuchean refugees. M.P.s. Pertti Salolainen and Ben Zyskowitz (Conservatives) suggested the aid to be raised from 2 Mmk to 5.5 Mmk. The Parliament decided to keep the aid at the present level, 2 Mmk, because in the budget for 1980 8 Mmk was granted for help in Kampuchea. The Red Cross organized large campaign in Finland to raise funds for Kampuchea. By the end of November the campaign had yielded 3.5 Mmk.

The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees made an urgent appeal to Finland to increase her help to refugees. The Parliament decided to give 2 Mmk to refugee programs. The Finnish Red Cross had earlier organized a wide campaign to raise money for refugees. The campaign brought 3.5 Mmk.

A condominium of Finnish construction enterprises Finn Stroi Co won the competition to build the third phase of Svetogorsk cellulose and paper complex in the Soviet Union. Finns have constructed the first two phases, too.

Finland and the Soviet Union signed an agreement on mutual of examinations and degrees.
10.12.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen especially noted in his speech at the Paasikivi Society meeting in Oulu that increased funds for defence equipment were not in contradiction with Finland's policy of supporting disarmament. Finland's defence budget is already very modest and unilateral disarmament would not lead to disarmament in other countries, Väyrynen said.

The Nordic Council of Ministers met in Helsinki.

A new arms race spiral should be prevented and a reduction in the level of armaments achieved, Foreign Minister Väyrynen said in his speech at the Paasikivi-Society in Oulu. "From Finland's point of view, the minimum which must be achieved is that nuclear powers — either in unilateral declarations or through agreements between themselves — guarantee that non-nuclear countries will not be attacked nor threatened with nuclear weapons and that their territory will not be violated in guiding such weapons to their targets”, Väyrynen said.

194 Members of the Parliament out of 200 signed an appeal against the deployment of new nuclear weapons in Europe. The appeal was sent to parliaments in all CSCE countries.

In his speech at the Paasikivi Society in Oulu Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that Finland must continue her efforts to raise the degree of purchases of the developing countries from Finland tied with her development aid, but at the same time Finland must observe the principles laid down for development cooperation. More feedback wilt also help to increase appropriations, Väyrynen said.

In his speech at the Paasikivi Society in Oulu Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that in her trade policy Finland must follow the GATT. The basic trade norms incorporated in the GATT agreement prohibit discriminatory actions against member states such as for example the Republic of South Africa or Chile. If a small country like Finland cuts its trade links with some country, this will not have any significant effect from the point of view of the other party, Väyrynen said. Since the other countries would continue to trade, it could easily find new suppliers and markets elsewhere, Väyrynen stressed.

Finnish-Spanish agreement on cultural exchange was signed.
11.–13.12.
The joint Saudi-Finnish economic commission met in Helsinki.
15.12.
The Cabinet regretted NATO's decision to deploy new middle-range missiles in Europe. The Cabinet also urged arms reduction negotiations in Europe and the ratification of the SALT II Treaty.
19.12.
NATO's decision to deploy Euro-missiles had destroyed the basis of middle-range missile negotiations, the head of the Soviet Politburo international information department, Leonid Zamjatin said in his speech at the Paasikivi-Society in Helsinki.
20.12.
Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that the 34th session of UNGA had been a disappointment from the point of view of disarmament and detente. The refugee problem of the Far East was resolved more successfully, said Väyrynen.
21.12.
Foreign Ministry gave 4 Mmk for the Indo-Chinese refugees and 1.4 Mmk to the Red Cross for help to the refugees in Finland to adjust to their new home country. It also gave 100000 mk for the UNHCR.

Finland recognized St. Vincent & Grenadines.

Finland established diplomatic relations with Burundi.
30.12.
Finland and Egypt signed agreement on promoting Finnish investments in Egypt and an agreement on a 12 Mmk loan to Egypt.
31.12.
In an interview for the Soviet news agencies TASS and APN Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen urged the great powers to return to the "road of detente”. He hoped that the SALT II Treaty should soon be ratified and that arms control negotiations could soon begin in Europe.
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