Archive and Chronology of Finnish Foreign Policy

Year 1980 in Finnish Foreign Policy


According to President Kekkonen's New Year's speech the situation in Northern Europe was stable, but a new arms race spiral could endanger it. Maintaining this balanced situation would require efforts by all the states in the area.


Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen commented on the Afghanistan situation and saw no threat of an armed conflict between the great powers. He said that the statement of 31 Dec. 1979 by the Foreign Ministry emphasized that the situation in Afghanistan should be normalized and the Soviet Union should withdraw her troops as soon as possible.

The Finnish Prime Minister Manno Koivisto and the Finnish and Danish Foreign Ministers stated that the countries were unanimous about a common Nordic initiative for promoting détente at the CSCE follow- up meeting in Madrid.

An agreement between Finland and Yemen on development cooperation.


The Finnish Ambassador to the UN Mr. Ilkka Pastinen explained that the Finnish policy of neutrality required the country to remain neutral in disputes between the great powers and that this was the reason Finland had abstained from voting on the resolution concerning Afghanistan.


Finland and Iraq signed an air traffic agreement.

An agreement between Finland and Switzerland on international transport by road.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen expressed his belief that the international situation would affect the work of the CSCE follow-up meeting, but he also believed that positive results were possible because the participating countries need to promote the CSCE process had not changed. promoting détente was not a temporary policy where Finland was concerned.


Tass commentator Yuri Andrejev wrote in an article that NATO'S Eurostrategy would endanger equilibrium in the Nordic region. The Soviet Union and its allies had to maintain the balance in a situation where NATO was trying to achieve military dominance. Referring to President Kekkonen's New Year's speech, he expressed the view that the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance would essentially promote peace in Northern Europe.


The Foreign Ministry published a statement announcing that the Government gave its support to holding the Olympic Games inMoscow. President Kekkonen had earlier received a letter from President Carter asking him to appeal to the Finnish Olympic Committee to cancel the event or to choose another venue.


The Norwegian daily "Morgonbladet” wrote about Soviet military manoeuvres near the Finnish border and in the Gulf of Finland. Also the Swiss "Neue Zürcher Zeitung” and the Swedish "Svenska Dagbladet” had published articles on "anxiety in Finland” because of Afghanistan. The Foreign Ministry announced its disapproval of these statements.


In an interview with the Japanese newspaper "Asahi Shimbu” Mr. Kalevi Sorsa, Chairman of Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee, stated that all the elements of the Cold War are present in today's international situation. Both in the Soviet Union and in the United States, emphasis has been put on military rather than political aspects.

Speaker of Parliament Johannes Virolainen received members of the IPA, the association of international journalists working in Finland and said that neither the Madrid conference nor the IPU conference should be postponed because of the situation in Afghanistan.


The Finnish Ambassador to the United States Jaakko Iloniemi presented his views on the international situation, saying that we are still far from the Cold War of the 1950s. He found the European situation as balanced as possible and warned about uncalled comparisons with Asia and Africa, as well as about drawing a parallel between Finland and Afghanistan.


President Urho Kekkonen commented on allegations concerning self-censorship in the Finnish press. These often result from misunderstandings or insufficient knowledge about circumstances in Finland. The State did not have any intention of restricting the freedom of the press, nor could it have done it. In matters of national interest, according to President Kekkonen, a journalist would rather be considered politically wise than journalistically dishonest if he showed serious consideration in different situations.

The Finnish Olympic Committee decided unanimously to enter the Finnish team in the Olympic Games in Moscow.


A meeting of the Finnish-French joint economic commission was held.


The president of the Republic ratified two ILO conventions: one on protecting the freedom to organize and on methods of stipulating employment contracts in the public sector, and another on organizational functions and the role of employment administration authorities.


"Helsingin Sanomat”, a Finnish daily, published the results of an opinion poll on attitudes towards Finnish development aid. According to 37 per cent aid should be maintained at its present level; 37 per cent thought it should be increased, 15 per cent thought it should be increased a lot, 7 per cent wanted a slight decrease and 3 per cent wanted to end it altogether.


Speaking at the opening ceremony of the 1980 regular session of Parliament, President Kekkonen expressed the hope that events outside Europe would not damage results achieved here. The follow-up meeting in Madrid was the best forum for exchanging ideas. Changes in the situation in Europe would also be reflected in Finland's position. Sympathies and antipathies should not be mixed into foreign policy. The speaker commented on this, saying that we should believe the present international situation is temporary.


Professor Osmo Apunen gave a speech at a Paasikivi Society meeting in Tampere. He said that the politics of the 1980's resemble the blockade politics of the 1940's more than he Cold War. Détente had turned into open propaganda and was pushing neutral and non-aligned countries closer to countries belonging to various alliances.


Mr. Kalevi Sorsa, Chairman of the Social Democratic Party commented on the meeting of the Socialist International in Vienna and said that it was not the proper forum for dealing with the Afghanistan question from the point of view of justice.


An agreement between Finland and Australia on transferring nuclear material.


A trade seminar between Finland and Iraq was held in Porvoo. Finland was granted most-favoured-nation status in her exports to Iraq.


The U.S. Ambassador to Finland Rozanne L. Ridgway noted in a lecture to the Paasikivi Society that she was not sure whether the principles and aims of U.S: foreign policy were always fully understood in Finland. The events in Afghanistan meant a challenge for both countries in their foreign policies based on their own particular circumstances.


A trade policy conference between Finland and India was held in New Delhi. An agreement on scientific, economic and technological cooperation was signed.


The French Foreign Minister Jean Francois-Poncet said during his visit to Finland that the success of the follow-up meeting in Madrid depended on the Soviet Union's actions to restore-confidence. According to him, French and Finnish attitudes towards Afghanistan differed, but were, however, fairly similar. Trade between the two countries should be increased. France's share of Finnish foreign trade was only 3.5 per cent.


Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto and Swedish Prime Minister Thorbjdrn Falldin announced that Finland and Sweden were aware of negotiations about additional NATO arms stores in Norway and that this was no cause for alarm- Mr. Falldin added that Sweden supported President Kekkonen's initiative on a European disarmament programme.


Nordic Cooperation Ministers met in Copenhagen.


The Finnish Government announced that it had in the previous weeks sent a proposal concerning a European disarmament programme to all he CSCE countries.

Changes in the 1st and the 2nd list of the 1961 convention agreement on narcotics.


Finland and India signed an agreement on scientific, economic and technological cooperation.

Finland established diplomatic relations with Upper Volta.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said that extending the Treaty of Frienship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance was not yet of immediate interest but that either of the parties could take the initiative. The Treaty has been extended twice without changes and according to Mr. Väyrynen there was no need to make any now.

A scientific conference involving the CSCE countries began in Hamburg.


Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto specified the statement of the Prime Ministers: they had agreed beforehand to issue evasive statements in order to avoid interfering with Norway's internal affairs.


Finland and the United States signed an air traffic agreement.


Trade negotiations between Finland and Spain were held in Madrid.


A Finnish-Soviet agreement on regulating jurisdiction in the sphere of fishing in the Gulf of Finland and the North-Eastern parts of the Baltic Sea.


The World Bank published its GNP ranking list, With Finland in 21st place. Finland's GNP per capita grew by 1.9 per cent in 1978 and in 1979 by 6.5 per cent.


According to the "Times”, the international situation had not affected Fenno-Soviet relations. The Times published an interview with Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto, who considered both the situation in Europe and Fenno-Soviet relations stable. The newspaper also deemed the Koivisto government the strongest since the war.


Mr. Kalevi Sorsa presented his view on the Afghanistan situation at a disarmament meeting arranged by the Swedish Social Democratic Party: foreign troops should be withdrawn and the United States should cancel its boycott.


The 28th session of the Nordic Council of Ministers was held in Reykjavik. According to Chairman Olof Palme, it was essential that Nordic stability remained unchanged regardless of tension on the international scene. The Nordic Prime Ministers issued a joint memorandum urging the Nordic countries to develop co-operation in the sphere of energy. Closer economic co-operation between the Nordic countries should be encouraged.


The Foreign Ministry granted a total of 2.7 million marks in humanitarian aid to various organizations. Among them were UNRWA, the Namibia Fund and the Red Cross International Committee.


A meeting of the Finnish-Czechoslovakian Joint Commission ended in Prague.

Finland and the Republic of Korea signed an agreement on limiting and controlling Korea's exports of textile products to Finland.


An agreement between Finland and Burma on transport by air.


Minister of Defence Lasse Aikäs denied that the latest acquisitions made by the Defence Forces were conducive to increasing armament. The reason for the acquisitions was equipment renewal.


An agreement between Finland and Libya on scientific, economic and technological Cooperation.


Finland gave a 1.35 million mark grant to support actions against racial discrimination in South Africa. 7.8 million was given to the Tanzanian state-owned construction company Mecco,
whilst 7.4 million FIM for 1981 and 7.2 million FIM for 1982 were reserved for the same purpose.


The State Economic Controllers criticized the low level of Finnish development aid. By 1982, Finland ought to reach the goal of 0.32 per cent of GNP.


According to statistics published by the Bank of Finland Finland's gross long-term foreign debts were 35 400 million marks at the end of 1979. Net imports of long-term investment capital was 1 568 million marks the same year.


Kurt Jansson was appointed U.N. Deputy Secretary General in charge of aid to Kampuchea.


The Finnish mark was revaluated by 2 per cent. This was done to fight inflation.


In a study on the solvency of the world's countries carried out by the institutional Investor company (USA) Finland came 19th onthe ranking list. The countries were given points from 0 to 100 according to the credit rating given them by a hundred major banks. Finland had 74.4 points.

The Nordic Ministers met in Helsinki. The Ministers stated that a decision to withdraw foreign troops from Afghanistan should be taken. The logical security policy of the Nordic countries had promoted peace even in wider international contexts.


The Iraqi Ambassador to Finland Saleh Mehdi Amash had made enquiries to Finnish companies concerning their Zionist or Jewish directors or owners, or their trade relations with Israel. The Foreign Ministry considered the inquiry a peculiar operation in contradiction with Finnish Middle East policy.


The PLO leader Jasser Arafat, referring to his contacts with Finnish Communist ministers, told the Swedish news Agency TT that he was expecting an official invitation to Finland. The PLO representative in Helsinki Zamil Shihada said that Mr. Arafat would accept only an official invitation. The visit had earlier been planned by the Arab Friendship Society, but not by the Foreign Ministry.
Foreign Minister Paavo Vävrynen said that the Government had no intention of inviting Mr. Arafat and no changes in relations were to be expected. Finland had recognized the PLO as the most important, but not the sole representative of the Palestinians. Thus an official invitation as between two independent states was impossible. He saw no hindrance to the PLO having an office in Helsinki as in Stockholm.
The Foreign Ministry stated that the PLO could open an office in Helsinki at any time. Otherwise the relationship would remain similar to that between Finland and other liberation movements.


Lieut-CoI Pekka Havu was appointed Chief-of-Staff of the U.N. Peacekeeping Forces, UNDOF.


The 32nd anniversary of the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance was celebrated in the Soviet Union. A Finnish government delegation led by Minister of Social Affairs and Health Katri-Helena Eskelinen took part in the celebrations in Moscow. According to her, the pact had wide significance in promoting security in this part of the world.

Editor-in-chief Jan Magnus Jansson discussed Finland's possibilities of keeping outside a potential crisis in the neighbouring area. In such a case it would be important that NATO and the Soviet Union could rely on Finnish territory not being used for aggression against either party. In addition to the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, the increased international importance of the northernmost parts of Fenno-Scandia, increased tension in world politics and even in the third world were, according to him, of vital importance to Finland's situation.


Wärtsilä and a Soviet partner concluded an agreement providing for icebreakers worth 400 million marks to the Soviet Union.


Negotiations on scientific, economic and technological cooperation between Finland and the Republic of Korea were held in Seoul.


The 32nd anniversary of the Treaty was celebrated in Finland. The main ceremony took place in Helsinki.


A seminar on Fenno-Soviet joint economic ventures was held in Moscow.


Mr. Paavo Rantanen, Deputy Secretary General of the Trade department at the Foreign Ministry met Ambassador Amash to discuss the enquiries made by the Ambassador in March. According to a statement issued after this meeting, there was no need for further actions by the companies nor the authorities, and the case was considered closed.


An international detente meeting began in Helsinki. At the meeting, President Kekkonen expressed his deep concern at the international situation. Sources of tension outside Europe should not harm the results achieved in Helsinki nor hinder the follow-up process.


Ambassador Amash denied sending this letter. The purpose was to make the Finnish companies respect the boycott included in trade agreements between Iraq and Finnish companies.

During his visit to Finland Mr. Hammadi, the Iraqi Foreign Minister, declared that Iraq needed no services from companies with Zionist directors. The Arab countries had joint boycott regulations against Israel, but the regulations aimed at boycotting companies not states. He also expressed his hope for closer trade relations between Finland arid Iraq. Finland was Iraq's most important trade partner among the Nordic countries.

The Minister of Justice Mr. C. Taxell said in Parliament that the enquiry did not violate Finnish law but was against international custom.


Finland granted Turkey 3,5 million dollars for economic stimulation.

A Finnish-American symposium on international politics began in Washington.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen announced that Finland would not impose the economic sanctions demanded by the United States against Iran because the U.N. Security Council had not decided on a joint boycott.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen suggested that Finland's contribution to accepting refugees should be increased to the same level as the other Nordic countries'. Aid to refugees should also be increased. As a rule refugees should principally be placed in developing countries.


An export seminar arranged by the Finnish Foreign Trade Association and the Finnish-American Chamber of Commerce ended in Helsinki.

At a seminar on the Treaty by the Centre Party, Mr. A.P. Harlamov, a member of the Communist Party and the editor-in-chief of "Zelskaja Zizn” stated that conservative forces in Finland were not pleased with the present Fenno-Soviet relations. The forces should be defeated in order to promote relations between the two countries. President Kekkonen was the central figure in developing the most important aspects of Finnish foreign policy, including relations with the Soviet Union and promoting international peace.


The 110th anniversary of Lenin's birth was celebrated in Helsinki. The Soviet Ambassador to Finland, Mr. V.M. Sobolev stated that in Fenno-Soviet relations Lenin's principles of peaceful coexistence were promoted more successfully than in other similar relations between capitalist and socialist countries.


An additional agreement establishing a Nordic industrialization fund for Iceland was signed.


An agreement between Finland and Sudan on scientific, economic and technological co-operation.


President Kekkonen received an international Lenin award for promoting peace between nations.


A Finnish—French agreement on co-operation in the field of forestry.


An environmental protection agreement on the Baltic Sea area.


The Finnish-Egyptian joint economic commission held its meeting. Finland's exports to Egypt totalled 245 million marks and imports from there 28 million marks in 1979.


An agreement on the freedom, special rights and office of the committee for the environmental protection of the Baltic Sea was signed.

A change in the 4th supplement to the general agreement on the protection of the Baltic Sea.


A Finnish—Chinese agreement on cultural co-operation in 1980 and 1981.


Referring to Finland's increased dependency and vulnerability in the international situation, Mr. Mika Tiivola, President of the Union Bank of Finland, suggested that we establish "a national security council”.


The Nordic Prime Ministers held a meeting on cooperation in the field of energy and industry in Oslo.


Finland and the Soviet Union agreed to extend the agreement on fishing and seal hunting in the Gulf of Finland by 10 years.


According to statistics published by the Bank of Finland, net exports of investment capital came to 487 million marks in 1979 and 257 million in 1978. The Finnish companies investments abroad were more than 2 300 million marks at the end of 1979 and foreign companies' investments in Finland 2 000 million.

In an interview with the Swedish daily "Göteborgs Posten” President Kekkonen said that Sweden would be the proper place for a European disarmament conference. He expressed his hope that the Nordic countries would take the interdependence in the region into consideration in their decision making. In an interview with the French news agency AFP he considered the great powers mainly responsible for the present international situation.

An agreement between Finland and Argentina on scientific, economic and technological Cooperation.


The Nordic Ministers of Defence met in Trondheim. They issued a joint memorandum in which all U.N. members were declared responsible for peacekeeping activities and financing them.


The Nordic Ministers of Defence issued a joint memorandum calling on U.N. members to accept responsibility for peacekeeping activities and for financing them.


The Finnish-Iraqi joint economic commission held its 8th meeting in Helsinki. The total value of Finland's exports was 410 million marks and of imports 734 million in 1979. Crude oil accounted for 99 per cent of exports.


In an opinion poll published by "llta-Sanomat”, 49.7. per cent of those who answered felt that Finland's international prestige had increased; 37.2 per cent thought that it had remained the same and 6.6 per cent that it has decreased during the past year.

A Finnish — Polish agreement on juridical assistance.


The 14th meeting of the Finnish-EC joint economic commission began in Brussels.

The Government decided to grant 1.5 million marks in additional aid to the destitute in Kampuchea.

In an opinion poll published by "Ilta-Sanomat”, Sweden was regarded as Finland's "best friend” (72 per cent). 64 per cent of those who answered regarded the Soviet Union as Finland's "best friend”. 53 per cent regarded Norway as Finland's "best friend” and 36 per cent Denmark.


A Nordic UNESCO meeting was held in Hämeenlinna.


In an interview with "Le Monde” President Kekkonen said that the Afghanistan conflict had an unfavourable effect on detente. He also saw the threat of a major conflict between the United States and Iran as relatively small.


An international peace conference of over a 400 M.P.s from 40 different countries was held in Helsinki.


Finland established diplomatic relations with Grenada.


During the official visit by the French President Valéry Giscard-d'Estaing President Kekkonen expressed his deep concern at the international situation. He also remarked that because of her political neutrality Finland could offer the international community her assistance. He thought it important that greater equality be achieved by promoting co-operation between industrialized and developing countries. He added that cooperation between France and Finland was insufficient and should be promoted in both the economic and cultural fields. He considered increased teaching of the French language one means of achieving this. He also expressed his deep concern at the international situation.


Negotiations on cultural cooperation between Finland andthe People's Republic of Mongolia were held in Ulan Bator.


The Nordic Ministers of Justice met in Helsinki.


Rauma-Repola and the Soviet company v/o Sudoimport signed an purchase agreement for ships worth 500 million marks to be supplied to the Soviet Union.


Finland and Mongolia signed an agreement on scientific, economic and technological co-operation for the years 1980—1982.

An amendment to a protocol on the visa agreement between Finland and Portugal.


A study was published on Finnish attitudes towards the international crises presented in the mass media. Of those who answered, 66 per cent regarded the Afghanistan situation and 57 per cent the Iranian situation as either extremely or relatively threatening to world peace. They were not considered particularly threatening to Finland since the equivalent figures were 11 per cent and 10 per cent. Instead, 34 per cent considered NATO's missile decision either extremely or relatively threatening to peace in Finland. On the other hand, 27 per cent were of the opinion that they did not threaten Finland's security at all. More than 70 per cent considered the possibility of military conflict relatively or highly unlikely.

The Nordic Ministers of Finance met in Helsinki.


A meeting of the Finnish-Cuban joint economic committee ended.


An agreement between Finland and Cuba on economic and technological co-operation.


A change to an agreement between Finland and Macao on limiting and controlling Macao's exports of some textile products to Finland.


The 23rd meeting of the Fenno-Soviet Economic Commission was held in Helsinki. A trade agreement worth a total of 2 400 million marks was signed. 11— 18.8 The 25th anniversary of scientific, economic and technological cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union was celebrated in Helsinki. 11-12.8. The Fenno-Soviet scientific, economic and technological committee had its 26th annual meeting.


An agreement between Finland and Hong-Kong on limiting Hong-Kong's exports of some textile products to Finland.


Minister of Defence Lasse Aikäs stated during his visit to the Soviet Union that the Soviet Union had never suggested joint military manoeuvres by the Finnish and Soviet armed forces. Such exercises were not necessary nor were they in accordance with Finland's role in international politics. Mr. Aikäs also met the Soviet Minister of Defence, Mr. Ustinov, during his visit.


According to Prime Minister Koivisto, users of the term "Finlandization” lacked sufficient knowledge about Finland's past and present. Statements on Soviet policy should be regarded as part of the neutrality of Finnish foreign policy. Mr Koivisto remarked that the Western press often evaluates independence against the wrong criterion: the more the neighbour is criticized the greater the freedom of the country. In such cases, attention is focused on superficial manifestations rather than obvious benefits.


A conference on the Decade of Women began in Copenhagen. The Minister of the Interior Eino Uusitalo led the Finnish delegation. A convention prohibiting the discrimination of women was signed.


The Government decided that Finland would accede to the OECD convention aiming at establishing an international negotiation and control organization for nuclear waste discharges at sea.


Ambassador Ilkka Pastinen presented Finland's views on the Middle East situation at a special session of the UN General Assembly. The main obstacle to achieving a solution had been the Israeli settlement policy and other actions involved. Finland demanded that Israel withdraw from the occupied Arab areas and supported the establishment of a Palestinian state. The PLO was still considered the most important representative of the Palestinians and its participation in Middle East peace negotiations was desirable.


Finland recognized Vanuaatu (The New Hebrides).


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said in the magazine "Moscow News” that he hoped that progress could be made at the Madrid meeting in the field of military détente in particular. A continuation of the arms race could easily endanger the security of small countries such as Finland.


A Nordic language and information center was opened in Helsinki.

Finland established diplomatic relations with Zimbabwe.


The Ministry of Defence replied to an article in the Swedish daily "Svenska Dagbladet' about Finnish cartridges being used by guerillas fighting the Afghanistan government and Soviet troops in the country. They probably originated in a consignment delivered to the Shah of Iran. Some of this consignment may have found its way to Afghanistan. As a rule, Finland does not export arms to conflict areas.


An agreement between Finland and the Soviet Union on juridical assistance.


A committee appointed to study the development of economic relations demanded 600 million marks for development aid in the 1981 budget, 150 million more than the Government had suggested.


Finland, Tanzania and the cooperation group Finnwater signed a tripartite agreement on constructing a water supply system.


A meeting of Nordic Ministers of Social Affairs and of the Social and Environmental Sub-Committee of the Nordic Council was held in Reykjavik.


The lack of knowledge about the Finnish export industry in the world market was discussed at a meeting of Finnish ambassadors in Helsinki. Inadequately efficient competition and information services provided by Finnish export companies were seen as one reason for this.

Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen gave a speech at a meeting of Finnish ambassadors in Helsinki. He stated that general reactions concerning the European disarmament programme had been positive.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen announced at the 11th special session of he UN General Assembly that Finland aimed to reach the 0.7 per cent development aid level by 1988. He also pointed out that in negotiations for a new development strategy differences in the economic performances of aid-donating countries should also be taken into consideration.

According to the Finnish U.N. Association, Finland has adopted too many of the strict attitudes of Western industrialized countries towards developing countries. Finland should adopt a more independent and active role in realizing the NIEO.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen criticized the U.N. Association's statement as utopian and based on insufficient knowledge of facts.

Trade negotiations between Finland and Romania were started.

An agreement between Finland and the United States on scientific co-operation.


An article under the pseudonym Yuri Komissarov published in the Soviet weekly "World economics and International relations” stated that NATO's Euromissiles decision also concerned the Nordic countries. The Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, particularly its military articles, would remain in effect even in changed circumstances.


The Government approved an agreement on scientific, economic and technological cooperation between Finland and Argentina.


Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen expressed the view that Komissarov's statement was mainly concerned with the discussion about Norwegian base policy and it did not include any alarming elements.


Negotiations on scientific, economic and technological co-operation between Finland and Nigeria were held in Lagos.


An agreement between Finland and Nigeria on scientific, economic and technological cooperation.


A UNESCO seminar organized by Finland's UNESCO committee was held in Espoo.


Ambassador Ilkka Pastinen presented Finland's official view on the Middle East question at the UN General Assembly. The solution should be based on Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338. Finland supported giving observer status to the PLO and its participation in negotiations concerning the Palestinians.


The Nordic Cooperation Ministers met in Helsinki.


Deputy Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen considered that Finland had managed the after effects of the Afghanistan crisis well. The crisis did not have an effect on Finland's neighbouring geopolitical areas nor did it affect Finland's relations with any other country. According to Mr. Korhonen, the interests of the great powers in the Nordic area lay mainly in preventive not intrusive measures.


In an interview with Norwegian journalists President Kekkonen said that U.S. arms depots in Norway in no way change the security balance in the Nordic region. He also expressed the hope that Norway would continue its present policy. His statement evoked controversy in the Norwegian press. A.O. Brundtland, a researcher from the Norwegian Security Institute, said that the comment could even be considered an official statement that the arms depots were in conformity with Norway's NATO base programme and would include factors which reinforce stability in the Nordic region.

A Finnish—Soviet agreement on co-operation in search and rescue activities in the border area.


Negotiations on trade between Finland and China were started. In 1979 the value of trade between the two countries was approx. 275 million marks.


A meeting of the Finnish-Libyanjoint commission was held in Helsinki. The total value of Finland's exports to Libya was 151.6 million marks and of imports 0.1 million marks in 1979.


An agreement between Finland and the United States on co-operation in the fields of nuclear safety and exchange of information.


Trade negotiations between Finland and the Federal Republic of Germany were started.


An agreement between Finland and the Soviet Union on higher education for the years 1980—1984.


During a visit to Finland by King Olav of Norway, the Norwegian Foreign Minister Knut Frydenlund said that he believed both countries appreciated each others' security political situations more than before. There had, however, been problems of communication and therefore he considered the absence of a proper correspondence system a drawback.

Finland and Japan signed an air traffic agreement.


The Norwegian Ambassador to Finland Jens Evensen suggested that the plan for a nuclear-weapons tree zone in the Nordic region could be reconsidered. 10.10 Foreign Minister Knut Frydenlund replied that the official Norwegian opinion remained unchanged.


Rauma-Repola delivered five tankers worth 250 million marks to the Soviet Union.


The Nordic Ministers of Defence met in Uppsala.


At a meeting of the first committee in the UN General assembly, of State Keijo Korhonen expressed Finland's view that the Madrid meeting was proper forum for preliminary multilateral negotiations between the countries responsible for European security.


Finland and Singapore signed an air traffic agreement.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen criticized Finnish peace and conflict research on the 60th anniversary of the Finnish Peace Union- UN Association. He declared that present trends in peace research were too pacifistic: the research worker's personal sets of values were too explicit. Military aspects had not been given enough emphasis. This research has so far been carried out mainly by the Defence Forces. On 26.10 Mr. Tapio Waris, the director of the Tampere Peace and Conflict Research Institute objected, pointing out that peace research was the only discipline in which certain sets of values were accepted and that they are in no way contradictory to scientific thinking.


According to an OECD report, Finland's gross tax rate was 36.5 per cent of GNP in 1978 and 35 per cent in 1979. Finland came ninth in a ranking of sixteen countries.

Articles had been published about the Finnish Frontier Guard helping the Soviet authorities to catch deserters. A Swedish ministry announced that increased frontier control between Finland and the Soviet Union was a matter of Finnish Interior policy and did not alter Swedish policy towards Soviet refugees. The Ministry of the Interior denied allegations that stepped up frontier controls had been introduced and specified that all appeals for asylum by persons who entered the country illegally were heard and decided according to Finnish law and international agreements.

Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark signed an agreement establishing a joint basic commodities fund.


In an opinion poll published by "Helsingin Sanomat”, 72 per cent of those who answered felt the threat of major war had increased to a certain or great extent. 19 per cent considered the world situation to have remained stable. The situation in the Nordic Countries had remained the same according to 63 per cent, turned more unsettled according to 25 per cent and more stable according to 10 per cent.

At the U.N., Finland signed an international agreement on the taking of hostages.


The President of the Republic decided that Finland would accede to an international agreement on the safety of human life at sea.


An agreement between Finland and Norway establishing a committee for frontier sea areas.


The GECO OAC doubted in its review whether Finland could really keep its promise about reaching the goals set for 1982 and the 0.7 level by the end of the decade. Otherwise Finland's plans were considered satisfactory although the present aid level was considered very low. Credit was given to the quality of aid, to the most-favored-nation status granted the less developed countries, to the large amount of multilateral aid and to the favourable terms of the aid.
a) Multilateral cooperation
Multilateral aid, totalling 169 million marks, was appropriated as follows: UNOP 29.7 million marks, social development programmes 8.3 million, international Institutions for financing development 107 million and the rest to other U.N. programmes and institutions.
b) Bilateral co-operation
Bilateral aid totalled 227 million marks and was allocated as follows:
industry and economic infrastructure 55 per cent, agriculture, fishing and forestry 18 per cent, health, education and social development 9 per cent, administration and services I per cent and others 17 per cent. The main recipients were Tanzania (65.6 million), Vietnam (37.7 million) and Zambia (28.2 million FIM).

Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen gave a speech on the 63th anniversary of the October Revolution. He considered the disarmament situation on the whole as being rather bleak. Yet, increased willingness to take part in disarmament could be noticed and the Geneva negotiations were a positive sign in themselves.

An additional protocol to the agreement between Finland and the member states of the European Coal and Steal Community and the Community itself. This was due to Greece's joining the Community.

An agreement between Finland and the United States on co-operation in energy research.


An agreement between Finland and Iraq on cultural co-operation.


The APN commentator Lija Baranikas stated in the Swedish daily "Dagens Nyheter” that Sweden's assurance that it would shoot down any missile entering its air space was not sufficient guarantee for Soviet security. The Soviet Union might react by using guided missiles, which would result in a nuclear explosion in the air. He considered Euro-missiles and arms depots in the Nordic area as two links in the same chain.


The annual meeting of the Finnish-CMEA Joint Commission was held in Helsinki.


President Kekkonen paid a visit to the Soviet Union. He said he was convinced that the Soviet people and its leadership had such a deeply rooted view of Finland's special political status and stable foreign policy line that it would hold under any circumstances, regardless of the development of the international situation. President Leonid Breznev said in his reply that President Kekkonen's contribution was widely respected in the Soviet Union and his policy was known to have wide support among the Finnish people.


In a statement to the Finnish News Agency, Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen hoped that the technical problems of the CSCE follow-up meeting in Madrid would be solved as soon as possible. The meeting should concentrate on promoting the CSCE process in a constructive spirit.


President Kekkonen received the international Lenin award. In his speech, he said he considered the award as a tribute to Finnish foreign policy as well.


The 36th general meeting at GATT countries was held in Geneva.


The 15th meeting of the Finnish-EC joint commission was held in Brussels.


In the final communiqué on President Kekkonen's visit to the Soviet Union the importance of traditionally good personal relations in developing co-operation between the countries was emphasized. Not military activities, but solutions aimed at keeping the region outside tension and conflicts would strengthen security in Northern Europe.


A change in the decree concerning the entry into force of the convention on receiving evidence on private and trade-related juridical matters abroad.


The Minister of Education Kalevi Kivistö criticizied Finland's arms exports to buyers through whom the arms might be transferred to conflict areas.


According to statistics, the total value of Finland's exports in 1979 was 43 000 million marks. The share of five major exporting companies was 20 per cent. The total value of imports was 44 000 million FIM with 51 major companies being responsible for 23 per cent.


A trade protocol for 1981 between Finland and the Soviet Union was signed in Moscow.


An agreement between Finland and the Soviet Union on juridical co-operation for the years 1981—1985.


An agreement between Finland and Kuwait on scientific, economic and technological co-operation.


The Finnish and Swedish Foreign Ministers rejected Alva Myrdal's proposal for a nuclear-free zone including only Sweden and Finland. The countries had agreed in an earlier treaty not to have nuclear weapons on their territories. Signing this treaty would not be considered binding on Denmark and Norway, because these countries might receive nuclear aid from NATO. Instead, the idea of a nuclear weapons-free zone put forward by Finland would promote Finland's policy of neutrality. Because the chance of crises being reflected in the Nordic region would thus dimish.

Finland suggested that actions be taken to increase confidence between states. Such political actions would include informing other states in advance about major military manoeuvres and inviting international observers to them.


An agreement between Finland and Vietnam on development co-operation.


During budget talks in Parliament M.P.s of the Finnish People's Democratic League (SKDL) criticized the amount of Finland's arms exports and the choice of buyers. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen replied that arms for hunting and sports belonged to the same category as arms for warfare. The surplus of arms production must be exported. According to Mr. Väyrynen, Finland's arms exports are relatively small in international terms.


The Finnish delegation proposed in Madrid that negotiations be held between senior officials from the participating countries.


In Helsinki Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen reported on the 25th session of the UN General Assembly. Finland had emphasized the importance of the North-South question in international politics. Finland had also discussed the present situation regarding the European disarmament programme and submitted (together with the other Nordic countries) a memorandum concerning a treaty to ban nuclear weapons. It was also suggested that the increased incidence of acts of violence against diplomats and embassies be discussed at the General Assembly.


Wärtsilä signed a contract to deliver seven river icebreakers worth 700 million marks to the Soviet Union.


Mr. Kalevi Sorsa told the Swedish news agency TT that an international meeting of disarmament could be held in Stockholm in 1982.