Archive and Chronology of Finnish Foreign Policy

Year 1986 in Finnish Foreign Policy


In his New Year speech President I Koivisto hoped that at least some progress would appear in détente despite the fact that nuclear weapon disarmament discussions have not advanced. Mutual Nuclear Test Ban, continually supported by Finland, is especially topical, Meeting of Soviet Party Leader and Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev and President of the USA Ronald Reagan in November 1985 had a positive effect on international atmosphere. From the point of view of the 3rd CSCE follow-up in autumn 1986 it is important that concrete results will be reached in the Stockholm Disarmament Conference. Meeting of Nordic MP5 in Copenhagen and settlements made or being made on the Nordic NWFZ will help future initiatives on the cause. From the point of view of Finnish foreign trade an increase in Finnish technological research is central in importance, as well as an ability to adopt the results of scientific-technical development in both East and west, said Koivisto.


In a statement on refugee policy, Swedish People's Party of Finland made a proposal of increasing Finnish refugee quota from 100 per year to 300 per year. in situation of crisis Finland should accept more refugees than according to the proposed quota. The UN Refugee Commissioner or a similar organ would act as an intermediary. Personality and nationality of refugees entering Finland would be decided from case to case.


In Foreign Minister Väyrynen's opinion the proposal of Swedish People's Party of increasing Finnish refugee quota was not reasonable because Finland has no resources to receive more than 100 refugees per year.


According to Hufvudstadsbladet (main newspaper supporting Swedish People's Party) Foreign Trade Minister Jermu Laine was expected to leave his office in the Government during spring 1986. He had been criticized because of his statements on Finnish-Soviet trade by both Finnish Soviet quarters of high rank. The article stated that the relationship between Laine and President Mauno Koivisto was not good.

President Koivisto's announcement was released. He disputed all information about Foreign Trade Minister Laine's resignation. Koivisto declared that Laine has his full support his office.


Ministry of Defence appointed a working group to clarify export of war supplies from Finland.

Outokumpu Oy (Finnish mining company) announced that it will try to acquire 30 per cent share of a copper deposit in Chile in order to secure availability of copper concentrate to its production plants in Finland.

Parliamentary group of Finnish People's Democratic League left to the Government an inquiry in writing asking clarification on Outokumpu Oy's intention to acquire a share of a copper deposit in Chile.


Managing director of Outokumpu Oy Pertti Voutilainen said that it was impossible for the company to acquire copper concentrate from anywhere else than Chile.


According to National Coalition Party Chairman Suominen the Government is responsible for the possibility of Outokumpu Oy to acquire a share of a copper deposit in Chile. From the point of view of business matters the project is well argued; Suominen was unwilling to comment on the project's meaning for trade policy.


Meeting of Co-operation Committee of Nordic Social Democratic Parties and Trade Unions (SAMAK) was held in Copenhagen. Finnish delegation led by Social Democratic Party Chairman Sorsa attended the meeting. Founding of both a parliamentary working group and civil servant working group was considered to be necessary in order to speed up the Nordic NWFZ. The organization's report on economic and employment policy was also discussed.


Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Ivan Arhipov visited Finland. He and Finnish Chairman of Finnish-Soviet Economic Commission Sorsa started the Otamäki special coach factory. They negotiated on realization of agreed productive co-operation projects, the sketch for long-term economic program up to the year 2000, and the possibilities of Finland to join mining projects in Kola Peninsula in the future. Foreign Trade Minister Laine attended the negotiations. Arhipov met also President Koivisto.


Israeli Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs David Kimche lectured in Paasikivi Society on the situation in the Middle East from the point of view of Israel.

According to Communist Party Outokumpu Oy's intention to acquire a share of a copper deposit in Chile was based on false estimations on internal situation in Chile and therefore the project should be rejected.


An agreement on co-operative rescue work in Finnish—Norwegian border area.


By a mutual agreement Nordic countries restricted entry of the citizens of South Africa into Nordic countries. The restrictions apply to South Africans trying to attend conferences, exhibitions, sport, culture, and scientific occasions; not tourists.


In the opening of the 98th National Defence Courses, head of the Defence Forces General Valtanen proposed that Finland should prepare for a situation In between perfect peace and full scale war, where the Defence Forces should help in crisis control. Valtanen also noted increase in war technology's price, which has caused a shortage of 2 to 6 per cent from intended level in the army's deliveries.

Central Organization of the Finnish Trade Unions demanded Outokumpu Oy to reject intentions to acquire a share of a copper deposit in Chile, because human rights situation in Chile is still intolerable.


In an interview in Helsingin Sanomat Chairman of Administrative Council of Outokumpu Oy Erkki Liikanen said that the company's copper deposit project may fail because of the opposition against it. He proposed a general discussion on principles according to which Finland trades with politically problematic countries.


Ambassador Viktor Israeljan, head of Soviet delegation in Geneva, visited Finland in order to clarify Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev's initiative on disarmament. He met Prime Minister Sorsa and members of Paasikivi Society's delegation.


President and Mrs Koivisto spent their holiday on the Canary Islands.


In an article in Uusi Suomi (daily) Max Jakobson estimated that human right issues had gained more importance in Finnish foreign policy. As example he mentioned Under-Secretary of State Klaus Törnudd's statement in the UN and President Koivisto's speech at the 10th Anniversary Commemoration of the CSCE. In Jakobson's opinion, similar attempts were also boycotts against South Africa and efforts to stop Outokumpu Oy's (Finnish mining enterprise) mining project in Chile. These phenomena show a change in attitudes since President Urho Kekkonen's era, but there is a threat of integrating with nations with different security interests than Finland.

In a TV news interview Under Secretary of State Törnudd challenged the truth of Jakobson's statement on conflict between human rights policy and security policy. The aspects of security remain primary and human rights come after them.

30 years were gone since the Porkkala rented area was returned to Finland by the Soviet Union. In the celebration held in Kirkkonummi, Finland, Minister for Trade and Industry Lindblom said that the delivery was the result of strengthening confidence between Finland and the Soviet Union. According to Soviet Ambassador V.M. Sobolev the delivery was made because the FCMA treaty had guaranteed positive development between the countries and stability of confidence.


Outokumpu Oy announced that the copper deposit project in Chile will be postponed to future because of delays in the projects details.


The 7th meeting of Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic was in Helsinki. Report on the condition of the Baltic in 1980—85 had been completed. 12 recommendations were drawn up to prevent pollution of the Baltic. They related to waste of agriculture and cities, among others.


Speaker of Parliament Pystynen proposed that National Coalition Party should choose its presidential candidate already in summer 1986 in order to promote the campaign. Party Chairman Ilkka Suominen said that the party's candidate will not be chosen before general elections.


In an interview in Helsingin Sanomat (largest daily in Finland) Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen treated Finnish-Israeli relations and Finnish human rights policy. He criticized Finland's attitude towards the parties in the Middle East conflict and promised that the attitude will become more consistent during his visit to Israel in March 1986. Väyrynen partly agreed with Jakobson's estimations on the effect of human rights issues on Finnish foreign policy, but said that the Government has its own line in this matter. The simultaneous turn-up of human rights issues is mere incident, not a result of conscious policy.


Soviet pseudonym Jun Komissarov's article "Realism, Atlantism, and the nuclear-weapon-free North” was published in Kaleva (daily issued in Oulu, Northern Finland). The article disapproved demands made in Norway's Colding-report about limitation of armament in Kola Peninsula, because these weapons do not threat the North. According to Komissarov the Soviet Union is willing to discuss Baltic nuclear-weapon-free status.


Centre Party delegation led by Party Secretary Seppo Kääriäinen, Social Democratic Party delegation led by Party Secretary Erkki Liikanen, and Communist Party delegation led by Chairman Arvo Aalto attended as guests the 27th Party Congress of Soviet Communist Party in Moscow.


In an interview in Helsingin Sanomat managing director of Outokumpu Oy Voutilainen said that the copper deposit project fell because trade union movement did not get right information about the project.


Debating Club of Finnish Historical Society in Helsinki discussed history of foreign policy: whether it is basically science or pure politics. In professor Osmo Apunen's opinion these aspects are inseparable in research. According to Foreign Minister Väyrynen scientists have to be objective, wholly without bondages to politics. Still, they should keep in mind state interests. In professor Osmo Jussila's opinion Väyrynen's model would make the scientists to be court historians. He added that politics and historical research should complete each others.


In a TV statement on account of Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme's death President Koivisto said that Palme's goal had been an increase In international and national wealth and security. Also Prime Minister Sorsa and Speaker of Parliament Pystynen delivered their condolences.


The 34th meeting of Nordic Council was held in Copenhagen. Finnish delegation was led by MP Elsi Hetemäki-Olander and Minister delegation was led by Prime Minister Sorsa. In his statement Sorsa said that Finland plans her own refugee policy and rises her refugee quota when there are enough mental and material resources. Finland abstained from agreed recommendation which dealt with harmonizing refugee policies. Sorsa proposed founding of an institute for high level education and research by Nordic co-operation. Nordic ministers of finance published a statement on the effect of the USA, Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany on world economics.


Human rights policy was discussed in the meeting of Paasikivi Society in Helsinki, Opening speaker Under-Secretary of State Törnudd denied that Finland would have changed her policy in human rights issues, even though it is easy to bLaine heads of Finnish foreign policy of inconsistency in the area. However, human rights are not the most central area in foreign policy, in his speech Jakobson replied that inconsistency in human rights policy should remain within reason, which would also guarantee credibility of foreign policy.


The modifications in the General Agreement on Facilitating International Navigation.


President Koivisto and Prime Minister Sorsa attended the funeral of Swedish Prime Minister Palme in Stockholm.


Christian League of Finland Chairman Esko Almgren appreciated Foreign Minister Väyrynen for correcting Finland's relations to the parties in the Middle East by visiting Israel.

Foreign Trade Minister Laine visited the Soviet Union in order to discuss balancing Finnish-Soviet trade.


In an interview in Suomenmaa (main newspaper supporting Centre Party) Chairman of Peace Committee of Finland Matti Ruokola criticized Paasikivi Society of widening its issue area and forgetting its original aim: taking care of Finnish-Soviet relations. In Ruokola's opinion UKK Society founded in honour of the former president Kekkonen would suit better for the task.


President and Mrs Koivisto paid on official visit to Switzerland accompanied by Foreign Minister Väyrynen. They met Federal President Alfons Egli and Foreign Minister Pierre Aubert. Topical CSCE subjects were discussed.


The annual FCMA treaty seminar of Centre Party discussed the legacy of Kekkonen in Helsinki. Seminar guest, Soviet Ministry for Foreign Affairs Assistant Department Director Jun Derjabin, named in his lecture Kekkonen as the main creator of Finnish-Soviet relationship. Finnish opening speaker was docent Juhani Suomi.

Minister of Environment Ahde, who spoke in the 38th anniversary celebration of the FCMA treaty, discussed Finnish-Soviet co-operation in nature protection and development of economic relations. President Koivisto attended the celebration. Soviet delegation was led by Minister of Social Welfare for the Federal Socialistic State of Russia D.P. Komarova.


Peace Committee on Finland's meeting was held in Oulu, Finland. General Manager Ruokola was re-elected chairman. In his opening speech Ruokola said that the participation of the Federal Republic of Germany in the US SDI project makes the threat mentioned in the FCMA treaty still topical.


Session of Finnish-Soviet I Environmental Joint Commission was held in Moscow. Minister of Environment Ahde and Chairman of Soviet State Committee for Environmental Protection Jun Izrael signed co-operative contract and five-year co-operative plan for environmental protection. Air protection and especially preventing long-range pollution were central areas of interest.


A trade agreement with Albania.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended a meeting of Nordic foreign ministers in Stockholm. They discussed the Nordic NWFZ Väyrynen said that Finland reconsiders her relations with Chile in order to raise them to the same level of diplomacy as other Nordic countries.


Meeting of Trade and Scientific, Economic, and Technological Joint Commissions between Finland and the German Democratic Republic was held in Helsinki. The meeting discussed mutual trade and economic relations.


Chairman of Paasikivi Society, bank manager Jaakko Iloniemi commented on the criticism of chairman Ruokola in Uusi Suomi on the society forgetting its primary task. Finnish-Soviet relations are central in importance, but the task of Paasikivi Society is also to deal with other international issues. There is no difference in the political heritage of presidents Paasikivi and Kekkonen, and there is no need to construct any. In this issue area there is enough space for both Paasikivi and UKK Societies.


President and Mrs Koivisto paid on official visit to Yugoslavia accompanied by Foreign Minister Väyrynen 15th April, and Koivisto repeated his initiative of a ban on the use of violence in international relations. They also discussed mutual economic relations, which are to be expanded.


Minister of Finance Esko Ollila and Foreign Trade Minister Laine attended a meeting of OECD ministers in Paris. The meeting discussed reforming international trade system. Laine stated that Finland is worried about protectionist features in world trade.


Communist Party and Finnish People's Democratic League condemned the US air raid against Libya.


Peace meeting of Central Organization of the Finnish Trade Unions was held in Jyväskylä, Finland. The organization condemned the US air raid against Libya and advised member unions to continue projects of isolating South Africa.


The Government appointed a parliamentary committee to reform the law of state of war. Managing director of Delegation of Economic Organizations (EVA) Kauko Sipponen was named chairman.


Chairmen of Nordic Social Democratic Parties and Central Organizations of Trade Unions condemned fanning the flame of conflicts between nations by military operations and terrorism.

Parliamentary Defence Commission submitted to Minister of Defence Veikko Pihlajamäki Ministry of Defence's plan for 1987—91. The plan included two alternatives, the first one followed the line of the 3rd parliamentary defence committee and the second one bore in mind the shortages in army deliveries and the increase in technology's price. Both alternatives totalled over 30 billion FIM. Lapland, Southern Finland, and Ahvenanmaa were mentioned as strategic key areas. The committee's estimations on military policy followed the line of the 3rd defence committee.


Secretary General of Peace Committee of Finland Johannes Pakaslahti was elected Secretary General of World Peace Council in a meeting in Sofia.


Joint meeting of parliamentarians of EFTA and European Parliament was held in Helsinki. Secretary General of EFTA Per Kleppe and Willy de Clencq, who is responsible for EC's external matters, attended the meeting. The meeting discussed economic co-operation between EFTA and EC. De Clencq met President Koivisto, Speaker of Parliament Pystynen, and Prime Minister Sorsa. De Clencq and Foreign Minister Laine signed a framework agreement on scientific-technical co-operation between EC and Finland.


Secretary of Hungarian Socialistic Workers' Party's Central Committee Mátyás Szűrös lectured on "Hungary and the CSCE process” in Paasikivi Society.


In an interview in Helsingin Sanomat Foreign Minister Väyrynen did not accept Chairman of Peace Committee Ruokola's idea stated in a meeting of the representatives of the committee in Oulu, Finland. Ruokola said that if the Federal Republic of Germany joins the US SDI project It would cause the kind of threat mentioned in the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance IFCMAI. According to Väyrynen military use of the space has no straight connection with Finnish security policy. Usage of sea-, air- and submarine-launched cruise missiles is a bigger problem for Finland.


PLO delegation led by chief of the PLO political department Abdel Latif Hizlah visited Finland. Hizlah wished more Finnish activity to help to solve the Middle East crisis and the Palestinian question. He saw that Foreign Minister Väyrynen's statement made during his visit to Israel in which he proposed that the PLO would be recognized as a party in the peace negotiations, was positive. Hizlah met civil servants from Ministry for Foreign Affairs and lectured in Paasikivi Society.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa, who lectured in Journalists Peace Seminar, discussed alternative ways of action for Finland in foreign politics while international situation is tight and the superpower relations strained. Finland should try to find new and more suitable ways to act because models used during détente do not work. Sorsa regretted that international development has led to favouring national decisions and setting aside international co-operation in problem solving.

In his speech held in the 25th anniversary celebration of Military College Society, the UN Ambassador of Finland Keijo Korhonen said that after WW II neutrality proved permanent alternative for those countries to whom it was possible. European nuclear war he saw unlikely and during a short crisis also a neutral country's credible capacity for defence has meaning in crisis control.


Finnish People's Democratic League organized a seminar on security policy in Helsinki. MP Jorma Hentilä introduced the subject of change in the Nordic area's security situation and Jaakko Ellisaari introduced the subject of crisis management and its purposes.


National Coalition Party organized a seminar on Finnish-Soviet trade in Helsinki. The subject of increasing and developing Finnish-Soviet trade was discussed.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen condemned in his statement South Africa's strike to Botswana. Zimbabwe and Zambia and demanded abolishing apartheid.

Finnish UN Ambassador Keijo Korhonen gave Finnish human rights statement in the spring session of the UN Economic and Social Council. Korhonen noted that Finland promotes human rights by the means of quiet diplomacy; not by a policy of protest. The UN needs a more efficient organization to supervise over respecting human rights.


Communist Party demanded Finland to break off her economic and diplomatic relations with South Africa after South Africa's military strike to Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia.

National Coalition Party published its first statement on development co-operation. Development aid should be concentrated on securing human resources, food, health and education. The amount of refugees taken to Finland should be increased and general attitude towards refugees should be made more positive. The statement put special stress on problem solving through operating in international organizations.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended a special session of the UN General Assembly discussing economical situation in Africa. In the Finnish statement Väyrynen gave his full support to the economic revival project of Africa published by the Assembly. Väyrynen criticized South Africa's violent acts in her neighbouring countries and demanded more pressure on the country.


The Government submitted to the Parliament a bill allowing an increase in foreigners' ownership of real estates and shares from 20 to 40 per cent of share capital.

Parliamentary working group against apartheid submitted a bill signed by 57 MPs demanding breaking off all economic and cultural relations with South Africa.


Finnish-Soviet Scientific- Technical joint meeting was held In Helsinki. The meeting discussed possible co-operation in space research.


Finnish-Soviet Scientific- Technical joint meeting was held In Helsinki. The meeting discussed possible co-operation in space research.


Chairman of Centre Party's parliamentary group Kauko Juhantalo criticized Finnish party of Finnish-Soviet Economic Commission of being passive. According to him Foreign Minister Väyrynen's proposal of appointing a minister council on Finnish-Soviet trade policy was good because the present Finnish heads of the commission have no time to do their tasks.


The Parliament passed in the third round constitutional reform in the form suggested by the Government.

The Parliament discussed the Governments first report on development co-operation. The opinions of MPs of Finnish development aid and its realization were positive. The statements stressed the importance of follow-up.


Organized by OECD and Finnish Ministry of Labour, a conference on problems of sparsely populated areas was held in Kuopio, Finland. Finnish experiences of local development policy and local employment and entrepreneur schooling served as an example of problem solution.


Social Democratic Party proposed that the Government should make an initiative on organizing a special meeting of Nordic Council foreign ministers to discuss economic blockade on South Africa.


Centre Party held its party congress in Lappeenranta, Finland, Party Chairman Väyrynen was elected the party's presidential candidate in 1988 presidential election. Väyrynen disagreed with Prime Minister Sorsa's estimates on the superpowers' loss of ‘cooperativeness. The summit meeting in November 1985 proved these estimates false. Détente is the only alternative for Finnish foreign policy, said Väyrynen.


Communist Party demanded the Government to break off all relations with South Africa's apartheid government.


Main event of International Year of Peace in Finland, a summit conference of Committee of the Hundred and Peace Union, was held in Oulu. Speakers criticized the Government of a failure in spending Year of Peace and the pacifist movement of being unable to find proper means to reach its aims.


Finnish and Swedish TV-companies signed an agreement on sending programs of Finnish TV for the Swedish-Finnish people in Stockholm area through a transmitter placed in Stockholm from the beginning of July.

In an interview in Helsingin Sanomat Prime Minister and Finnish Chairman of Finnish-Soviet Economic Commission Sorsa said that Finnish-Soviet trade is not in crisis despite surplus for Finland caused by lower oil prices. Sorsa suggested changing the surplus into credits amortized in long term. In Sorsa's opinion appointment of a minister council on Finnish-Soviet trade proposed by Centre Party could not speed up the trade. The Economic Commission is an active and flexible body, said Sorsa.


Peace organizations, trade unions, and the church made an appeal to the presiding officers of the Parliament and the parliamentary groups of the parties on stopping the US and Soviet nuclear tests. The appeal will be published as an announcement in New York Times on 6th August.

Foreign Minister Väyrynen spoke in behalf of Finland in a meeting discussing sanctions against South Africa in Paris. Väyrynen proposed that individual pressure should be brought on South Africa as no mutual sanctions were agreed on. Väyrynen appealed especially to the like-minded countries.


Communist Party disapproved the bill submitted to the Parliament allowing an increase in foreigners' ownership in Finnish enterprises to 40 per cent. In practice it means tying the operating conditions of companies to decisions made abroad. The party noted that the increased amount of foreign loans makes Finland more dependent on foreign countries.

An agreement with Sweden on the sovereign islands.

An agreement with Sweden on modifying the Finnish—Swedish boundary line in Vähänärä according to the 1985 boundary survey.


Provisions group of Planning Committee on Defence Economy gave a report. Within the framework of one-year economic crisis, or three-year crisis under threat of war, the present 2.2 million hectares of cultivated ground are enough to cover Finland's provisions supply.


Soviet Foreign Trade Minister Boris Aristov visited Finland in order to negotiate the negative result of mutual trade. He and his Finnish colleague Laine signed a contract increasing Soviet import to Finland for 1 billion roubles (7 billion FIM). The most important products were oil, coal and natural gas. Rauma-Repola (Finnish enterprise) will supply three floating crayfish and fish refineries to the Soviet Union. Aristov met President Koivisto.


Delegation of 35 representatives of Finnish trade unions attended Worker Conference of Baltic countries, Norway, and Iceland in Rostock, GDR.


The Government made an appeal to industry and trade urging them to limit their economic relations with South Africa.


Board meeting of Liberal International was held in Espoo, Finland. Delegations from 17 countries attended the meeting hosted by Swedish People's Party and Liberal Party of Finland. The meeting's communiqué condemned South Africa's apartheid policy, the US support for Nicaraguan contra-guerrillas, and imprisoning of Nicaraguan opposition politicians.


Minister for Trade and Industry Lindblom attended the 3rd meeting of Eureka ministers in London. Finland joins 7 Eureka projects. Delegatives from 18 countries attended the meeting.


The Government decided that both import from South Africa and export to South Africa will be put under licence. It was hoped that more control will decrease trade with South Africa. The decision was put in force 15th July.


Main event of the UN International Year of Peace in Finland, Peace Camp 86, was held in Ruissalo. Opening speakers and delegates from over 20 countries attended the camp; e.g. from the Soviet Union, the USA, Africa, and South America.


Seminar on President Kekkonen's relations with Finnish Communists after WWII, President J. K. Paasikivi's relations with Kekkonen, and Kekkonen's interference with realizing constitutional reform was held in Orivesi, Finland. Opening speakers were researchers and politicians of Kekkonen's era.


In the UN Namibia meeting in Vienna Finland appealed together with other Nordic countries to the USA and Britain that they would reconsider their negative views of economic sanctions against South Africa.


Civil servant working group of Ministry for Foreign Affairs gave a report on the Nordic nuclear-weapons-free-zone (NWFZ). Finland intends to promote the zone by maintaining readiness to negotiate and by public discussion. The groups chairman was Under-Secretary of State Törnudd.

According to Ministry for Foreign Affairs Finland has no need to join Council of Europe. Finland takes part in the councils functioning, subject to certain reservations.


Chief of GHQ Vice Admiral Jan Klenberg estimated that an explosion of one nuclear war-head of a cruise missile at the same distance as Chernobyl and under similar weather conditions could cause same kind of fall-out in Finland as Chernobyl did.


A law of preparedness under crisis based on a committee proposal from 1979 was taken under reconsideration in Ministry of Justice, because Minister of Justice Christoffer Taxell estimated that the views of the parliamentary groups on the law were so contradictory that the law would never be passed.


Finnish Transport workers' Union (AKT) widened its transportation boycott against South Africa to include Swasiland, Lesotho, and Botswana. With the help of the Boycott the union tries to Block South African trade through these countries.


The appeal of Finnish peace organizations to the USA for stopping the nuclear tests was published in New York Times. The organizations appealed also to both superpowers on making an agreement on limitation of nuclear tests during 1986. The appeal was signed among others by all parliamentary groups and about 70 national organizations.


Ministry for Foreign Affairs announced that if no agreement is made on economic sanctions against South Africa in the UN in the near future. Finland prepares for breaking off her economic relations with the country. Bills for this purpose have been sketched by the ministry.

Foreign Trade Minister Laine, who spoke at a seminar on Finnish-Soviet trade in Rovaniemi, Finland, said that the 300 million roubles credit limit of Finnish-Soviet trade was about to be surpassed because of lower oil price. The surplus for Finland would rise to 700 million roubles by the end of 1986 if Soviet import will not be quickly increased.


Christian Leagues of Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, who met in Kirkkonummi, Finland, demanded in an appeal addressed to Nordic prime and foreign ministers that Nordic countries should make a decision on economic blockade on South Africa while they work for accomplishing international economic sanctions against South Africa in the UN.


According to Ministry for Foreign Affairs Botswana, Lesotho, and Swasiland are not detours for South African trade, as trade with them is small in amount.


Peace congress of European psychologists was held in Helsinki. Delegates from 24 countries attended the congress.


Prime Minister Sorsa attended Nordic prime ministers' meeting in Odense, Denmark, The meeting agreed on an UN initiative on declaring an international economic blockade on South Africa's government.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended Nordic foreign ministers' meeting in Odense. Decision on increasing development aid for SADCC countries was made. The meeting did not agree on joint Nordic boycott against South Africa. Further negotiations on founding a civil servant working group to treat the Nordic NWFZ were agreed on.


In his speech in Hämeenlinna, Finland, Assistant Secretary General on Finnish People's Democratic League Reijo Käkelä demanded active and demonstrative Finnish foreign policy instead of present low-profiled policy.


Meeting of Youth Organizations of SADCC countries and Nordic countries was held in Livingstone, Zambia. The meeting proposed the New International Economic System (NIEO) as the basis of mutual co-operation.


In Foreign Minister Väyrynen's opinion assistant secretary general Käkelä's critic on Finnish foreign policy's lack of initiative is inaccurate. The present policy is stable and successful and high profile is not an end in itself in foreign policy.


Foreign Trade Minister Laine, who spoke at the seminar on Finnish—US trade in Lahti, Finland, said that Finland should raise her trade with the USA to the same level with other Nordic countries. In Laine's opinion the US protectionist measures threat also Finnish exporters.


Meeting of parliamentarians discussing the Nordic NWFZ was held in Copenhagen. They discussed basis of the Committee's work and agreed that in future meetings the possibilities of including the Baltic and the North Atlantic Sea to a zone will be clarified. Delegates from 17 Nordic parties attended the meeting.

Namibia Day was celebrated in Helsinki. National Coalition party Chairman Suominen spoke at the celebration and demanded breaking off economic relations with South Africa in order to speed up liberation of Namibia. Finnish Transport Workers Union Chairman Risto Kuisma demanded quick end to all relations with South Africa. Also Swapo Secretary General Herman Toivo ja Toivo attended the celebration.


The 100th anniversary celebration of Co-operation Commit, tee of the Nordic Social Democratic Parties and Trade Unions (SAMAK) was held in Goteborg, Sweden. Finnish party delegation led by SDP Chairman Sorsa and Finnish trade union delegation led by Central Organization of Trade Unions Chairman Pertti Viinanen attended the celebration. The communiqué declared that an agreement on stopping South Africa's apartheid policy should be made in the UN Security Council. More Nordic co-operation is needed in Coping with the European market.


GHQ asked in a letter WSOY (Finnish publishing company) to leave unpublished Major-General (Ret.) Pentti Syriä's book Gruppa Finljandija. According to GHQ this book telling about Syrjä's experiences in the Frunze war academy in Moscow 15 years ago may endanger interests of defence and relations to a foreign country. Despite the letter the publisher announced that it will publish the book.


Delegates of "Isolate South Africa” -campaign addressed to the Parliament an appeal demanding a law that would deny economic, diplomatic, and cultural connections with South Africa.

Head of the Defence Forces General Valtanen gave a report on publishing Major-General (Ret.) Syria's book Gruppa Finljandija. Syrjä had no right to publish confidential information which he had received during his active service, in hope of economic benefit.


President Kekkonen died 1 a.m. at home in Tamminiemi, Finland.

President Koivisto uttered an obituary of the death of his precedent, Kekkonen, in radio and TV. According to Koivisto Kekkonen aimed at national unity and international peace and security. In the end of Kekkonen's era Finnish foreign political position was better than ever before in Finnish history. Kekkonen attained his purpose, confidential and good relations with the Soviet Union and operative relations with West. The vitality of the CSCE is the most international memorial to Kekkonen's life-work.


In an interview in Suomenmaa Foreign Minister Väyrynen made again his proposal of appointing Foreign Trade Minister as Finnish Chairman of Finnish-Soviet Economic Commission instead of Prime Minister and appointing a minister council on foreign trade policy led by Prime Minister.


Finnish Communist Party left an initiative to Foreign Trade Minister Laine on rising the level of co-operation between Finland and CMEA countries. This would be needed because of Finland's full membership in EFTA, joining ESA and Eureka projects, and special agreements with EC.


Interview with Soviet diplomat Juri Derjabin was published by Finnish news agency STT. Derjabin estimated the meaning of Kekkonen for Finnish-Soviet relations. Kekkonen offered a personal guarantee on the stability on mutual confidential relations during his presidency despite such problems as the note crisis in 1961 and EFTA and EC agreements Kekkonen's contribution guaranteed continuity of confidence even after his resignment.


In an interview in Suomen Kuvalehti (Finnish weekly) Prime Minister Sorsa said that the surplus of Finnish-Soviet trade from 1986 (from 4.3 to 5 billion FIM) can be balanced during the next couple of years. Finland is unwilling to cut her export to the Soviet Union and therefore it would be important to increase import and to find new products for import from the Soviet Union. Sorsa was unwilling to estimate the potential decrease in export.


The former president of Finland Kekkonen was buried. Soviet delegation led by Vice-President Pjotr Demitshev attended the funeral; the US delegation was led by president's former adviser in security policy Robert McFarlane; King Carl XVI Gustav represented Sweden, King Olav V represented Norway, Crown Prince Fredrik represented Denmark, and President Vigdis Finnbogadottir represented Iceland. Representatives from 40 countries attended the funeral. In his commemoration speech President Koivisto discussed the Quarter of a century of Kekkonen's presidency.


In Centre Party's opinion Prime Minister Sorsa's views of Finnish-Soviet trade underestimated the problems. The potential decrease in Finnish export might be up to 6 billion FIM, if it is impossible to increase import from the Soviet Union.


European parliamentarians' conference on air protection organized by Nordic Council was held in Stockholm. MPs and air protection experts from 16 countries attended the conference. Finnish statement emphasized the importance of international co-operation in decreasing air pollution.


Group of experts from OECD Environmental Committee made a tour in Finland. The group examined the state of Finnish environment and met authorities from different parts of administration and representatives of industry and organizations which deal with environmental problems. The group will make a report which will be given to Finnish authorities in May 1987.


Meeting of Nordic Communist Parties was hold in Syningien, Sweden, Finnish Communist delegation was led by Party Chairman Arvo Aalto. An appeal was addressed to Nordic governments to support realization of the Nordic NWFZ and to promote détente in Europe.


Foreign Trade Minister Laine discussed with his Soviet colleague Boris Aristov the unbalanced mutual trade. Finnish surplus was agreed to be balanced during the next few years; the means for this were left under further negotiation.

Centre Party Chairman Väyrynen assessed that the problems of Finnish-Soviet trade may lead to crisis in the Government as these problems remain unsolved. The problems were also the basis of speculation in Finnish currency and of high daily interest.


In Social Democratic Party's opinion the statements of Centre party on Finnish-Soviet trade were false and possibly harmful to Finnish interests. Finnish and Soviet administrative negotiate on balancing the trade. Foreign Trade Minister Laine noted that Centre Party had not proposed any solutions to the trade problem.


In his letter President Koivisto condemned Syrjä's book and its publishing. Syrjä had ignored GHQ's remarks on the book, he said.

In their meeting, President Koivisto, Prime Minister Sorsa, together with Finnish Vice Chairmen of Finnish-Soviet Economic Commission, Minister of Finance Ollila and Foreign Trade Minister Laine, discussed problems caused by the decrease of value in the Soviet import, and starting points for trade negotiations of 1987.

Prime Minister Sorsa said that the Government will keep together despite the controversy on Finnish- Soviet trade. According to Sorsa Foreign Minister Väyrynen had not proposed any solutions to the trade problems.


In Communist Party Chairman Arvo Aalto's opinion problems of Finnish-Soviet trade were caused by the one-sided structure of Soviet import and the thought of Western priority in Finnish foreign trade.


Speaker of Parliament Erkki Pystynen uttered the obituary on account of president Kekkonen's death in the opening of the Parliament's autumn session. He discussed relations between president Kekkonen and the Parliament.


National Coalition Party Chairman Suominen attended an EDU meeting of party chairmen in Vienna. He was elected Vice President of Union. In his speech Suominen demanded suppressing arms race, ending South Africa's occupation of Namibia, and increasing international environmental co-operation.


Finnish and US ministries for foreign affairs confirmed that the USA had noted about Finnish development aid to Nicaragua last summer. According to the note the aid is contradictory with the good Finnish- US relations. Foreign Minister Väyrynen stated that Finland will continue to give aid to Nicaragua despite the note.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended the 41st UN General Assembly. In special Namibia session Väyrynen gave Finnish statement and demanded sanctions against South Africa in order to speed up independence of Namibia. The majority of the Assembly (126-0) demanded economic sanctions against South Africa. Finland abstained because this statement was too pointed. Väyrynen gave also Finnish statement to the General Assembly. In international politics there is no cause for optimism. The newly started dialogue between the superpowers is satisfying. Worldwide attention should be paid to environmental protection. Realization of the economic revival project of Africa obliges also the international community.


Seminar on international co-operation of Finnish science organized by Ministry of Education was held in Espoo, Finland. Deputy director of Ministry for Foreign Affairs Jukka Valtasaari considered Finnish participation in Eureka project as important as co-operation with EFTA and EC. The Finnish aspiration is to keep pace with scientific and technical development.


Meeting of the delegates of Trade Unions of Communist Parties of Finland, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark was held in Oslo. The meeting discussed operating of supranational enterprises in the North and meaning of public sector in incomes policy and pay policy of Nordic countries.


Finland became an associate member of ESA. Minister for Trade and Industry Lindblom and General Manager of ESA Reimar Lüst signed a five-year agreement on the membership in Helsinki. Finland joins science program and far-mapping project. The costs will total 8.3 million FIM in 1987; 20 million in 1991. According to estimations from 40 to 70 per cent of the costs will be covered by received orders.

The agreements on the Finnish associate membership of ESA and on Finland joining ESA scientific program.


The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen stated that the Final Act of the Stockholm Disarmament Conference is proper and fair. Accomplishing the Final Act promotes security and cooperation in Europe and, hopefully, improves also relations between the superpowers.


Finnish delegation visited Moscow to negotiate trade in 1987. In order to reach balance in Finnish-Soviet trade, import to Finland will be increased and diversified. Finnish export has to be decreased. The Finnish surplus from 1986 was estimated to be 4.4 billion FIM.


The Government submitted the 1987 budget totalling 109.5 billion FIM to the Parliament. The total appropriated for the administration of foreign affairs was 2.659 million, of which 2.062 million, or 0.55 per cent of GNP, was for development aid, Contribution for Egypt increases as well the share of Kenya, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. Aid for SADCC countries is taken from the appropriation for territorial development aid. Ministry of Defence's share was 5.655 million. 2.3 billion, of which one tenth will be paid in 1987, was reserved for Finnish Army's weapon and equipment acquisition. A new missile flotilla will be ordered for Finnish Navy.


Finnish delegation led by Minister for Trade and Industry Seppo Lindblom attended special session of IAEA discussing increasing the security of nuclear power in Vienna. In the Finnish statement Lindblom demanded an agreement between IAEA member countries on common security norms and control of the norms in nuclear power plants. He signed two agreements; according to the first one the signatory powers are obliged to inform of a nuclear accident to other countries if it may cause damage to them. The second agreement was meant to speed up mutual assistance in case of an accident.


Parliamentary Defence Committee organized a seminar on security policy. Opening speakers discussed foreign policy and defence as tools of security policy, and preparedness of Finnish economy and civil defence in a state of emergency.

During his visit to Finland, head of Nordic Office of the UN Refugee Office Soren Jessen-Petersen assessed that Nordic countries should observe mutually agreed refugee policy in order to be taken into consider-action. In Jessen-Petersen's opinion Finnish refugee quota differs notably from the other Nordic countries quotas.


Soviet pseudonym Juri Komissarov wrote in an article transmitted by the news agency ABN that In the Soviet Union's opinion the Nordic NWFZ is realizable at the moment. The Soviet Union is ready to clarify and make concrete the acts needed for promoting the zone, but she also expects activity and reciprocal acts from Nordic countries.

In the opening of the 100th National Defence Course, head of the Defence Forces General Valtanen proposed that defence's share in the budget should be provided by law in order to avoid annual uncertainty about the amount of resources. He continued that the defence appropriation had remained below defence committees' recommendations.

Head of the Defence Forces General Valtanen announced that the Defence Forces will not take any measures on the part of Major-General (Ret.) Syrjä's book.


National Coalition Party chose bank manager Harri Holkeri as the party's presidential candidate for 1988 presidential election after he had won Speaker of Parliament Pystynen in party member vote.


President and Mrs Koivisto paid an official visit to Japan accompanied by Foreign Minister Väyrynen and a delegation of industrial managers. President Koivisto met Emperor Hirohito and discussed developing and balancing mutual trade with Prime Minister Jasuhiro Nakasone.


Finnish Kauppalehti and Soviet Ekonomitsheskaja Gazeta (business newspapers) organized a seminar on the state of Finnish-Soviet trade and its development in Moscow. Finnish and Soviet Foreign Trade Ministers Laine and Aristov both considered the joint venture co-operation as an important initiative in developing trade. Soviet import of machines and equipments to Finland should be increased.


According to Finnish People's Democratic League delegate in Parliamentary Defence Committee, editor Jorma Hentilä, General Valtanen's proposal of providing the defence's share in the budget by law does not solve problems of defence policy. Finnish national economy cannot afford present defence forces on the long run. This makes out a case for checking up the functions and structure of defence forces.

Social Democratic Party's statement demanded more Finnish development aid to Nicaragua and noted that the USA acts against the principles of international law by supporting guerrillas fighting against Nicaraguan government.


The Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee decided to request Ministry for Foreign Affairs to give a report on the US Navy's destroyer USS Thorn's visit to Helsinki. The ship had been suspected to carry nuclear weapons.

Foreign Trade Minister Laine told that Finland and the Soviet Union had agreed on a credit account for the Finnish surplus of 1986 (from 1.5 to 2 billion FIM). It will be used in addition to the normal credit account and an interest and a currency risk clause was determined for it. The debts will be paid in one or two years' time.


President Koivisto discussed with the Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee Finnish-Soviet trade. Koivisto had not intervened in the discussion about Finnish-Soviet trade, as the point of the critic had not been clarified and no solutions to the problem had been proposed. Koivisto noted that the Finnish surplus was discussed already in May 1986, when he met Soviet Prime Minister Ryzhkov in Stockholm.

Centre Party stated that taking care of the Finnish surplus from Finnish-Soviet trade had begun and no further discussion was needed.


A bill on financing development co-operation partly with ‘mixed' credits was submitted to the Parliament. The credits would be used in low and middle income DCs; to the least developed countries the aid is contributed.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen, who spoke at the 30th anniversary celebration of Finnish peace-keeping forces in Kajaani, said that considering Finland's size we have sent more peace corps to the UN's use than any other country. Peace corps are the most successful part of the UN functioning.


Meeting of the permanent negotiating committee of Finnish and Soviet Central Organizations of Trade Unions was held in Helsinki. Chairmen of Central Organization of the Finnish Trade Unions, Finnish Central Committee of Public Servants, Finnish Confederation of Technical Employees' Organizations, and Finnish Central Organization of Academic Professions represented Finland, and Secretary of Soviet Central Federation of Trade Unions (VZSPS) Vitali Provotorov represented the Soviet Union.


President Koivisto gave a statement on the Reykjavik summit meeting of Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan. In Koivisto's opinion it is to be regretted that despite remarkable progress no mutual understanding was reached in questions of disarmament.


Delegation led by Social Democratic Party Chairman Sorsa attended Socialist International (SI) working group and council meeting. Sorsa said that even though the Reykjavik summit meeting did not reach the desired goals, it brought possibilities for further actions. The meeting suggested convening a conference of nuclear-weapon-free European countries to discuss European security questions.


President Koivisto lectured in Paasikivi Society on "Security of Northern Europe; developments under examination”. According to Koivisto military activity has increased in Northern sea areas. This has not increased threat of war In Northern Europe, but joint Nordic reinforcement of confidence is needed in the area. Finnish initiatives on founding the Nordic NWFZ, making Border Peace treaty between Finland and Norway, and banning long-range cruise missiles are still valid. The FCMA treaty and assuring Finnish Capability of defence are central for Finland's security.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen stated during the Parliament's hour of inquiry that the Government does not suspect the visiting warships of carrying nuclear weapons. The Government trusts the visiting fleets obey the denial to even contemporarily bring nuclear weapons to Finnish territorial waters.

According to Communist Party the meeting of President Reagan and Party Leader Gorbachev was a disappointment because it did not lead into concrete agreements between the superpowers. The reason for this was the US engagement in the SDI project. Otherwise the meeting had a positive meaning.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen, when speaking for the Governments behalf in the meeting of Finnish Scientific Union of Progress, stated that not enough knowledge about Finland's foreign policy and Finnish history of immediate past is passed in Finnish comprehensive school and high school. He added that also university level international politics and political science teaching is too theoretical and unfit for use in tasks touching upon foreign policy.

According to Finnish People's Democratic League Finnish development co-operation has turned into a way of gaining safe projects for Finnish economic life from the Third World. The interests of the object country are more important when choosing the countries. An increase in the appropriations during the last years is positive.


President and Mrs Koivisto attended the 50th anniversary celebration of Finnish-Swedish Chamber of Commerce in Stockholm. President Koivisto met Swedish Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson. Koivisto said he had received positive opinions of his initiative on reinforcing confidence In Northern sea areas, Foreign Trade Minister Laine, who attended the celebration, wished in his speech even more co-operation between Finnish and Swedish enterprises.


The 3rd conference of The International Peace University (TIPU) was held in Helsinki. 100 delegates from Nordic countries, Europe, the Soviet Union, and the USA attended the conference. The thesis was "Peace as Human Right”. Minister of Education Gustav Björkstrand spoke in behalf of the Government.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended a meeting of foreign ministers of neutral and non-aligned (N+N) CSCE countries in Yugoslavia. The meeting wished that the CSCE follow-up in Vienna will improve security and co-operation in Europe and that the Stockholm Conference could be continued right after the Vienna follow-up. The possibilities of the CSCE 2nd issue basket should be utilized more than before.


Peace marchs of the UN Disarmament Week were arranged. 100.000 Finns attended to the march; 10.000 of them in Helsinki.

Parliamentary group of Finnish People's Democratic League submitted a bill suggesting a restriction in number in the Defence Forces, so that every year at most half of the conscripts' age class turning twenty would enter military service.


Meeting of Nordic prime ministers was held in Copenhagen. Prime Minister Sorsa attended the meeting, which discussed forming of Nordic home market area by abolishing trade limitations and potential transmitting of Soviet natural gas through Finland to Sweden and uniting of the natural gas tube to the Danish and Norwegian tubes in a later phase.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended the funeral of President of Mozambique Samora Machel.


Nordic ministers responsible for emigrant issues convened in Helsinki. Finnish Minister of Labour Urpo Leppänen wanted to discuss widening Nordic right to vote to include general elections. They discussed also double-nationality.


Seminar on European security and co-operation was held in Vienna before the CSCE follow-up. Deputy Speaker of Finnish Parliament Matti Louekoski, who led Finnish delegation, made an opening speech on the present state of the Nordic NWFZ and on President Koivisto's initiative on security in Nordic sea areas.


Report of Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic on the state of the Baltic in 1980—85 was published. The sea is being over fertilized through nitrogenous and phosphoric compounds pouring into it. The amount of DDT and PCB compounds had decreased.

Delegate of the US government, Ambassador Robert L. Barry, visited Finland in order to clarify the US views in questions of arms control and state of negotiations between the USA and the Soviet Union after the Reykjavik summit meeting. According to Barry Reykjavik created basis of progress for negotiations in Geneva. Barry met Prime Minister Sorsa and civil servants from Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

Specialist of Tampere Peace Research Institute Pertti Joenniemi, who discussed threats on defence policy in the Pasila Peace Station, said that Finnish administration of defence had false ideas about possible warfare in the North. The North has become a strategic key area for the superpowers and therefore Finnish army's vision of a limited war in the North is false.


An increase of 1.4 billion FIM in the import from the Soviet Union in 1987 was agreed on in civil servant negotiations. The total value of Finnish-Soviet trade will be 14 billion FIM or 2 billion roubles.


In an interview in Hufvudstadsbladet Foreign Minister Väyrynen assessed the 3rd CSCE follow-up in Vienna beginning 4th December. The follow-up will discuss the CSCE tasks after the Stockholm Conference. Security- and confidence-building acts in sea areas may be included to these tasks. Questions of disarmament to be discussed in Stockholm should be agreed on in Vienna. Väyrynen said that Finland will put pressure on the questions of the follow-up 2nd issue basket especially environmental questions.


A mini-CSCE, security and co-operation meeting of European centre, liberal, and rural parties was held in Espoo, Finland. Finnish organizators were Liberal Party, Swedish People's Party, and Centre Party. The meeting was attended by delegates of 25 parties from 17 countries and the delegates of the Soviet Union and the USA. Subjects of discussion were security questions of Europe, environmental protection, and the superpower relations after Reykjavik. Centre Party Chairman Väyrynen wished that continuation of the Stockholm Disarmament Conference will be confirmed In the CSCE follow- up in Vienna. The meeting gave its support to President Koivisto's initiative on security- and confidence- building measures in sea areas.


An interview with President Koivisto was published in Pravda. Koivisto thought that the Reykjavik summit meeting was significant and promoted nuclear weapon disarmament despite the lack of final mutual understanding. Realization of the Nordic NWFZ has been supported by all five Nordic countries, even though some obstacles still exist.

Minister of Science and Culture Björkstrand, who spoke at the 40th anniversary celebration of Unesco, said that the organization has faced such difficulties during the recent years that one can speak of a crisis in multilateral co-operation. Despite this the meaning of Unesco and other special organizations of the UN as the realizing bodies of co-operation between nations is great. Finland joined Unesco 30 years ago.


The 3rd CSCE follow-up began in Vienna. Foreign Minister Väyrynen attended the opening ceremonies. In the Finnish statement Väyrynen said that the basis of this follow-up were better than of those before. He wished that the mandate of the Stockholm Conference could be completed by including actual questions of disarmament. Realization of the Helsinki Final Act had been unsatisfactory on many parts. Väyrynen met Federal President of Austria Kurt Waldheim. Finnish delegation in Vienna is led by Ambassador Matti Kahiluoto.


Delegation of SADCC countries led by Vice President of Botswana and chairman of SADCC Minister Council P.S. Mmusi visited Finland. The delegation presented to Finnish economic life possibilities to join productive co-operation with SADCC countries in agriculture and mining, among others. They met Foreign Minister Väyrynen.


In a TV interview head of the Defence Forces General Valtanen said that credible defence of Finland is possible only with the help of land forces; air and sea forces are not enough. Finnish Defence forces cannot be compared with the superpower defence forces, because they have different kind of functions and conditions.


Main event of Finnish-Soviet Month of Friendship was held in Pori, Finland. Minister of Education Pirjo Ala-Kapee spoke in behalf of the Government. Soviet delegation was led by Foreign Minister for the Federal Socialistic Republic of Russia Vinogradov. President and Mrs Koivisto attended the event.


Soviet pseudonym Jun Komissarov commented in Helsingin Sanomat on President Koivisto's initiative on confidence- and security-building measures in the Northern sea areas. The Proposal is a consistent sequel to president Kekkonen's initiative on the Nordic NWFZ and its aim is to guarantee active state of peace and strengthening of stable conditions. Koivisto's Initiative, which he stated in a meeting of Paasikivi Society, is congenial with the CSCE Final Act and The Stockholm Disarmament Conference agreement.


Finnish Representative of Consumers Gerhard af Schultén was elected new Secretary General of Nordic Council for next four-year period beginning at the turn of 1986-87.


Meeting of Nordic Council of Ministers decided to appoint joint Nordic civil servant working group to follow refugee policy of the countries and to discuss possibilities to harmonize it.


Member of Soviet Communist Party's political committee and Secretary of the party's central committee Jegor Ligatshov visited Finland hosted by Social Democratic Party. In his dinner speech Ligatshov thanked President Koivisto for confirming continuity and stability in Finnish foreign policy after president Kekkonen. Ligatshov announced that the Soviet Union had disposed middle-range missiles totally from the Kola Peninsula and partly from the military districts of Leningrad and the Baltic. Social Democratic Party Chairman Sorsa considered these acts to be encouraging unilateral Ligatshov met President Koivisto and Chairmen of Centre Party and Communist Party. Social Democratic Party and Soviet Communist Party published a report on the visit.


Finland made a statement on the CSCE 2nd issue basket in the Vienna follow-up. Finland proposed co-operation in environmental protection and removing obstacles from East-West trade.

Under-Secretary of State Matti Ahtisaari was appointed Under-Secretary General of the UN administrative affairs. He will be responsible for the UN economical and personnel affairs from the beginning of 1987.


President Koivisto gave his consent to the resignation of head of the Air Forces Lieutenant-General Rauno Meriö. Major-General Pertti Jokinen was appointed a new head of the Air Forces from the beginning of February 1987.


National Coalition Party held a special party conference in Joensuu, Finland. The party elected bank manager Holkeri its presidential candidate for 1988 presidential elections. In his speech Holkeri gave his full support to Paasikivi-Kekkonen line in Finnish foreign policy.


Joint meeting of Finland and CMEA was held in Helsinki. The signed contract recommended that 20 new agreements on co-operation would be made between Finnish enterprises and CMEA establishments. Foreign Trade Minister Laine signed the contract in behalf of Finland.


Social Democratic Party's council decided to propose in summer 1987 party congress President Koivisto as its candidate for 1988 presidential elections.


Centre Party's statement on foreign policy gave support to President Koivisto's initiative on security- and confidence-building measures in the sea areas. The party will cherish the political legacy and foreign policy of president Kekkonen.


In its autumn meeting, Peace Union of Finland proposed a peace foundation in commemoration of president Kekkonen. The foundation would finance research on security policy and disarmament and support international pacifist work.

Finnish statement in the UN General Assembly complained of the UN's way of choosing only some countries In which the situation of human rights is condemnable. This weakens the UN's reliability in questions of human rights.


Prime Minister Sorsa spoke in the opening of National Defence Course in Helsinki. According to Sorsa the Defence Forces have a generally approved position in Finland and Finnish Defence Forces have been developed on the basis of realistic planning. The increase in the defence appropriation has been remarkable.

Foreign Trade Minister Laine gave a report to the Parliament on Finnish trade policy. Finnish-Soviet trade in 1987 will remain in 1986 level; the 1986 surplus will be about 4 billion FIM. So called ‘export forks' will be applied to trade in order to regulate export in relation to import.


Development Co-operation Committee of OECD thanked in its report Finnish development co-operation for quality and increase. Positive sides in Finnish aid were the great support for international assistance organizations, the great amount of contribution aid for the poorest countries, and the support for development in agriculture, forestry, health services, and the countryside. Finland has been able to take in consideration the local conditions when realizing her development aid projects.


In the annual meeting of Paasikivi Society Ambassador Markku Reimaa from Finnish CSCE special delegation in Vienna lectured on "Views of the CSCE follow-up in Vienna”. The 25th anniversary issue of "Ulkopolitiikka” (Foreign Policy) was published on the same day.

The Government decided of distributing development aid in 1987-90. Bilateral aid will be continued to be given to the same IS countries. The amount of contribution aid will be increased in relation to development credits. It will be 873 million FIM in 1987; 1020 million in 1990. Development loans total 155 million FIM in 1987; 235 million in 1990. The greatest amount of territorial development co-operation aid will be given to SADCC countries.


Mutual agreement on preventing double taxation was signed by all five Nordic countries. It replaces an earlier agreement in force since 1983.

Finnish statement on the Middle East discussion in the UN General Assembly noted that Unifil troops are important balancing factor in South Lebanon despite the unsatisfactory conditions. Otherwise the solution in the Middle East should be based on the Security Council's Resolutions 242 and 338.


Finnish People's Democratic League's council decided to ask Governor of Central Finland Kalevi Kivistö as its presidential candidate for 1988 presidential election after the general elections in 1987.


Centre Party's delegation led by Chairman Väyrynen visited Moscow invited by Soviet Communist Party. Väyrynen met Member of CPSU Political Committee and Secretary of Central Committee Jegor Ligatshov and unofficially Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze. They discussed the superpower relations, the CSCE follow-up in Vienna, and balancing Finnish-Soviet trade. A report on the visit was published.


Foreign Trade Minister Laine attended EFTA meeting of ministers in Geneva. The meeting discussed developing co-operation between EFTA and EC, the effect of developing EC markets on Western European system of free trade, EC's potential protectionist acts in shipyard and forest industries, and questions of the new GATT round.


In a meeting of Editors' Society General Valtanen demanded that financing of the Defence Forces must follow the plans of parliamentary defence committees. Relative decrease in the defence appropriation calls for saving acts, e.g. giving up general conscription, at the latest in the beginning of the 1990's.


Bank of Finland celebrated its 175th anniversary. In The Bank's Monthly Bulletin President Koivisto wrote that despite the risks Finnish economy must become more international. Prime Minister Sorsa, who spoke in the festive occasion, discussed state of Finnish Mark. Among the guests were heads of Nordic and Societ central banks.


Finnish Committee of the Hundred announced that an independent civilian committee on security policy had been convened to prepare an estimation of security policy situation in Finland and the changes in it, and to propose a plan of defence in the 1990's. Legislative councillor Lars Dufholm was elected chairman of the 15 member committee.


Finland made a statement on the CSCE 3rd issue basket in the Vienna follow-up. This issue basket had not been realized as expected, but thanks to it the position of a single person has gained permanent attention.


According to the five-year plan of Ministry for Foreign Affairs centre of gravity of international politics in 1988—92 will be the UN. It is probable that Finland will become a member of the UN Security Council in 1989—90. 0.7 per cent GNP share for development aid will be reached in 1989. It will remain the same till the end of 1992. The main principles of development aid will remain the same as until now.

Foreign Trade Minister Laine, who spoke at the 40th anniversary celebration of Finnish-Soviet Chamber of Commerce, estimated that the 1986 Finnish-Soviet trade will remain 15 per cent below 1985 level. Soviet delegation led by Chairman of Presiding Officers of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry E.P. Pitovranov attended the celebration.


It was announced that the Canadian Embassy in Helsinki will be closed because of economic reasons.


Finnish delegation led by Minister for Trade and Industry Lindblom attended the 4th meeting of Eureka ministers in Stockholm. In the Finnish statement Lindblom said that the experiences of Finnish enterprises of the Eureka preparations are positive. Problems of technological co-operation must be solved in other organizations. After the meeting Finland joined 12 projects out of the total of 109.


Finnish-Soviet agreement on trade 1987 was concluded. It was signed on the 7th of January when Soviet Prime Minister Ryzhkov visited Finland. The value of trade remained in 1986 level. Export and import were in balance. Maximum and minimum in relation to import were put on Finnish export.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen gave a press conference on the happenings of the 41st UN General Assembly. No agreement was made on isolating South Africa because of disagreements between the member countries of the Security Council. Despite this Finland continues to follow the UN decisions. The work of the UN has suffered from economical problems.


Survey on Finnish attitudes towards refugees and aliens was published in Helsingin Sanomat The present Finnish refugee policy satisfied 58 per cent of Finns; 20 per cent supported widening of refugees' immigration right and 19 per cent wanted to restrict it. The present I Finnish aliens policy satisfied 65 per cent of those interviewed and 15 per cent supported widening of foreigners' immigration right; 16 per I cent thought it should be restricted. 65 per cent of Finns thought that Finnish South Africa policy should be adjusted to the UN recommendations.

In a notice the Government asked Canada to reconsider the closing of the Canadian Embassy in Helsinki.


In the introduction occasion of Peasant's Africa — work party Chairman of Agricultural Producers' Central Union Heikki Haavisto suggested that a third of development co-operation resources should be used for developing the countryside.


Chairman of the independent civilian committee on security policy Lars Dufholm said in Hufvudstadsbladet that the reason for convening the committee was ceasing the earlier parliamentary defence committee's activities. The later appointed Parliamentary Planning Committee on defence policy deals only with economic resources needed by the army. A body viewing questions of defence and security policy from the whole society's angle was needed.