Archive and Chronology of Finnish Foreign Policy

Year 1981 in Finnish Foreign Policy


President Kekkonen's New Year's speech concentrated on the constant mistrust between the great powers, armament, threat of nuclear war and the present standstill in the process of détente. In emphasizing these things, the President stressed the importance of peace work also in Finland despite her remoteness from the present crisis areas. As for security in Europe, the President stressed the significance of the Madrid CSCE follow-up conference and the Finnish Initiative for a European Programme of disarmament.


In an interview granted to the Swedish news agency TT, Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto expressed his hope for a livelier economic cooperation between the Nordic countries realized largely as cooperation between enterprises. The problem, however, is that the Nordic national economies do not complement each other well enough.


An agreement with Norway on the management of the state border between Finland and Norway.


The Channel-2 programme "Ajankohtainen kakkonen” (a bi- weekly review of current affairs) dealt with Finnish foreign policy and interviewed Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen and Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen. The Finnish foreign policy lines were criticized in the programme for being selfish, for seeking for national good by keeping aloof from the search for solutions to world and especially third world problems in the name of Finland's neutrality and small size. The programme gave rise to a lively discussion; it was criticized for its choice of means and its way of presenting the problem, but it was considered positive that it endeavoured to create discussion on the foreign policy lines.


A Nordic conference on industry was held in Helsinki. More than 40 representatives from industry and ministries of industry participated and noted that at present cooperation goes well and is extensive and that no major problems exist.


In an interview to "Suomen Sosiaalidemokraati” Aarne Saarinen, chairman of the Finnish Communist Party, considered it important that the person elected in the 1932 presidential elections have the will and ability to continue the Paasikivi-Kekkonen foreign policy line. This is why it is important according to Saarinen, for the so-called Popular Front parties to find a common candidate for the elections.

The Finnish association of paper and cardboard producers made a 550 million mark export agreement with the Soviet V/ID Exportles. The deal covers the first half of the year.


A session of the Fenno-Mongolian Technical-Scientific Joint Commission was held in Helsinki. First Chairman of the Mongolian Presidium D. Madair attended the session and also negotiated with Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto, Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen and Minister of Foreign Trade Esko Rekola. The minutes signed after the session chart possible fields of cooperation and exchange of experts.


A disarmament forum of the world's youth arranged by the committee of the Finnish Youth Organizations (SNT) convened in Helsinki. There were participants from over 90 countries. In this greeting to the forum President Kekkonen expressed his concern about the accelerating arms race, the increased tension between the great powers and the increase in regional crises. On behalf of the Finnish Government the forum was addressed by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen, The final act of the convention demanded a political solution to the Afghanistan crisis and guarantees of national security. As regards a total solution to the Middle East situation, the Palestinians are to have right to found a state of their own. The accelerating arms race also worried the participants and they demanded that SALT- 2 be implemented. It was considered important that the youth work for peace regardless of differences in political, ideological and religious points of view.


Finpap and the Soviet V/C Eksportles made a deal according to which 375 000 tons of paper worth over 1.1 milliard marks will be exported to the Soviet Union during 1981.


The chairmen of the Finnish Committee for Promoting Security in Europe handed a memorandum to Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen at the beginning of the second stage of the Madrid follow-up conference. According to it, changes in the strategic situation in Europe also affect the situation in Northern Europe. It was hoped that the follow-up conference reach an understanding about convening a conference on military detente and disarmament in Europe.

At the annual negotiations on the programmes for different development co-operation countries it was decided to grant 29 million marks in development aid to Sambia. This will be increased gradually in the future.


The export association of the Finnish cellulose made a 410 million mark deal on cellulose exports to the Soviet Union Finnboard made a 300 million mark deal on cardboard exports to the Soviet Union.


The 25th anniversary of the session of the Porkkala Lease-area back to Finland was celebrated in Kirkkonummi; Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen and the Soviet Ambassador to Finland V. M. Sobolev attended the celebrations. The significance of the cessation for promoting security in the Nordic region and in the world was stressed in the speeches held. The celebration was arranged by the Porkkala section of the Finland-Soviet Union Society and the surrounding communes.

A document on cooperation in 1981—85 between the State Youth Council and the Soviet Commission on Youth Organizations was signed. Also Finnish and Soviet youth organizations signed a cooperation programme for the same period. This was the first of its kind and was signed by 38 Finnish nationwide organizations.


The 24th session of the Fenno-Soviet economic co-operation commission convened in Moscow. According to a deal signed during the session, the Fenno-Soviet trade is to be increased to 24 billion marks during 1981, which would mean that the Soviet Union will become Finland's biggest trade partner. The agreement is part of the 7th five-year agreement (1981— 1985). The Finnish delegation was led by Ahti Karjalainen, acting governor of the Bank of Finland and the Soviet delegation by Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolay Patolichev.


An agreement on revision of the Treaty on Goods Exchange and Payments for 1981—85 between Soviet Union and Finland was signed.


The US Ambassador to Finland, Mr James E. Goodby emphasized in an address to the Hämeenlinna Paasikivi Society that the US gives its support to a stable Nordic region. He considered the US foreign policy as consistent and stable which is emphatically seen in the relations with the Nordic countries.

The Finnish government, in a letter to the Palestinian Liberation Organization, considered it possible to establish "a PLO political office” in Helsinki. According to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, this may consist of an information office like the one in Stockholm.


In the Finnish delegation address to the Madrid follow-up conference it was noted that the continual discussion on disarmament was to the point but cool, and that no great compromises were in sight. The discussions should aim at concrete results despite differences of opinion as regards principles.


The Central Committee of the Finnish Communist Party issued a statement on the international situation. It condemned the NATO decision to deploy middle-range missiles in Western Europe; their routes through the air space of the Nordic region constitute a threat to the Nordic countries. The statement expressed anxiety about the US decision to store heavy armament in Norway for US troops.


A development cooperation seminar of the Nordic UN Associations was held in Botswana. Also a representative of the Finnish UN Association took part in it.


According to Minister of Foreign Trade Esko Rekola Finnish industry must make provisions for adopting itself to the new situation created by an increasing import pressure from the developing countries. According to him, this is not a passing phase to be overcome by temporary protection measures but a long-term problem of adaptation. This view was put forth in a speech delivered at a conference on productivity in Helsinki.

President Kekkonen stated in interview to "Izvestia” that the way the term Finlandization has been used lately reveals the ignorance of its users of Finland's real status. The term has been used to give a distorted picture of the relations between Finland and the USSR, and there has been tendency to use it as a weapon in contexts that have nothing to do with Finland. The Final Act of the Helsinki CSCE will not lose its significance despite fluctuations in the international atmosphere. The Madrid CSCE follow-up conference should be able to come up with concrete measures for the implementation of the Helsinki Final Act. He further stated that it would be important to resume the talks on disarmament in Europe.


The commission for the protection of the Baltic Sea convened and accepted ten recommendations for different measures for preventing pollution of the Baltic Sea.


The Social Democratic Party Commission published a statement according to which the governments of the Nordic countries should find out the possibilities of strengthening the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone. The Social Democrats consider the establishment of nuclear-free zones as an efficient way of promoting security in Europe and in other parts of the world. The Madrid conference should decide on new practical measures for widening the scope of the CSCE-cooperation. The object in Europe should be total removal of nuclear weapons.


In an interview to the Finnish periodical "Seura”, Ahti Karialainen, acting governor of the Bank of Finland, stated that the so-called Popular Front does not have exclusive rights on the presidential issue. He stressed that the presidential election was to a great extent a question of foreign policy lines. As regards the recent discussion on foreign policy, Mr Karialainen said that Finland alone can look after her own interests, Foreign political "neorealism” and "social biology”, are terms that mean nothing to the public, he said and added that discussion has risen recently to quite a theoretical level.


An amendment of the fourth appendix to the convention on maritime environmental protection of the Baltic Sea.


The Norwegian daily "Aftenposten” published an interview with Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto. According to him, Norway has striven to adapt her foreign political solutions within the bounds of her possibilities in order to avoid friction between the Nordic countries. Finns follow the Norwegian discussion on the Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone with interest and see it as useful, but there is no need for Finns to take part in it.

Lieutenant-General Aimo Pajunen gave an interview to "Me”, the magazine of the progressive cooperative movement. The interview created a minor sensation by what was said about Norway. According to Pajunen, the advance storage of US arms in Norway in an international atmosphere which is already strained is not suitable action from the part of a small nation. In situations like the present one, small nations should strive to remain outside superpower conflicts, according to him.


The first session of the Fenno-Moroccan Economic Joint Commission was held in Helsinki. The issues discussed included economic and commercial relations and industrial cooperation.


Amendments of the first and second appendices of the general convention on the international trade of the threatened species of wild fauna and flora.


Finland and Jugoslavia signed a treaty on economic, technical and scientific cooperation.


The 29th session of the Nordic Council was held in Copenhagen. It was agreed that the council of an eventual common TV-satellite for deliberation in the 1982 session. The inefficiency of the Council in realizing co-operation objects was criticized and it was demanded that measures be taken to correct this. Outside the session, foreign policy and the nuclear-free Nordic region were discussed. Also some consideration was given to a proposal to arrange a separate conference on security policy.


President Kekkonen's 25th anniversary as president.


The Third Parliamentary Defence Committee submitted its report to Minister of Defence Lasse Äikäs. The report suggests that some 17.5 billion marks be spent on military defence in 1982—86. The share of defence spending in the whole budget would then be 1.5 percent and of state spending over 5 percent. The real growth of the defence spending would be 3.8 percent.During the five-year period in question, priority is to be given to the development of the ground forces and the aim should be to create fast deployment force of 250,000 men. The report notes that the international security-political situation has become more tense and that the strategic-political significance of Northern Europe has grown, although the internal situation in that area has not changed.

The primary instrument of Finnish security policy is foreign policy consisting of an active and peace- orientated policy of neutrality on the basis of the FCMA-Treaty, relations based on trust with all the neighbouring and other countries and a resolve to remain outside superpower conflicts.

As regards the FCMA-Treaty, the Committee followed fairly closely the lines introduced by he two former committees. According to the report, the Treaty strengthens Finland's security and stipulates that Finland has the primary responsibility to defend their territorial integrity. Within the framework of the FCMA-Treaty we can reinforce our defence after a military aggression has taken place or when the threat of an aggression has been mutually confirmed.

The chairman of the 3rd Defence Committee, Jan-Magnus Jansson, expounded the work of the Committee in Paasikivi Society. According to Mr Jansson, the final conclusions in the report as regards the FCMA Treaty do not essentially diverge from the lines taken by the two former Committees.

A Nordic agreement on social security and a cooperation agreement on Nordic development cooperation were signed.


The tenth session of the third UN conference on maritime law was held in New York. A Finnish delegation of five took part in the Conference. Maritime borders between countries and exploitation of the ocean floors and sea bed were discussed.


The Finnish Communist Party considered it positive that the Third Parliamentary Defence Committee did not diverge in its interpretation from the lines taken by the former committees but did not accept the interpretations which narrow down the field of application of the military articles in a way which is detrimental for the security of our country. The FCP further considered that there are no grounds for increasing the armament spending either on security-political or national economic grounds.

An unofficial activity for drafting the final act. The neutral and non-aligned countries offered to act as coordinators in the handling of different issues. Finland and Sweden together will coordinate the security policy section.


Finland and Nigeria signed a treaty on econmic, technical and scientific cooperation.


The Finnish representative in the Disarmament Committee in Geneva stressed the significance of safety guarantees for the non-nuclear states and zones. An attempt is being made to reach an agreement that would bind the nuclear weapon states.

Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen spoke at a seminar on the problems of the least developed countries and on the UN Special conference on the same issue. Väyrynen said that Finns must find the political will to increase the development aid to 0.32 percent of the GNP in 1982 as promised and to 0.7 percent of the GNP by 1988.


Kalevi Sorsa, Chairman of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, stated in a disarmament seminar of the Social Democrats of the EEC-countries in Paris that an agreement to start negotiating a European disarmament conference should be reached, even though all issues could not be agreed on in the Madrid CSCE follow-up.


A disarmament seminar arranged by the Finnish Peace Defenders and the Soviet Peace Committee was held in Moscow.


The Nordic Co-operation Ministers ratified the 1982 co-operation budget amounting to 98 million marks. The share of the co-Nordic institutions is about half of the budget and the rest is appropriated for industrial policy, the establishment of a co-Nordic export fund for project export and an increase in energy-political co-operation.


The Nordic Foreign Ministers held a meeting in Stockholm; according to the statement published after it the Nordic countries will work actively against the spreading international tension.


The neutral and non-aligned countries of Europe submitted an overall proposal for the final act of the Madrid follow-up conference. The aim was to untie the blocked situation in the conference. According to it, detente is to be made into a continual, global process. The draft also contains the Finnish proposal for a European disarmament conference.


President Kekkonen granted interview to the Finnish news agency STT on the present state of the CSCE and interpretation of the FCMA-Treaty. The CSCE follow-up, according to the President, demands of the participants an especially great desire for cooperation to safeguard the continuance of the detente process. The FCMA-Treaty has not lost any of its functional capacity despite the fact that it was concluded over 30 years ago. According to President Kekkonen, it helps Finland to secure her position to a great extent regardless of international tensions. The Treaty aims at keeping peace by creating of Finland and its environs a region that remains outside strategic calculations and international conflicts.


A delegation led by Minister of Traffic Veikko Saarto, attended the 33rd anniversary celebrations of the FCMA-Treaty in Moscow. Mr Saarto noted the importance of the work by the Friendship Societies in both countries for promoting good relations.


The Disarmament Council of the Socialist International convened in Helsinki with Kalevi Sorsa as Chairman. The Council prepared a memorandum of issues related with disarmament for the SI party leader conference of the 29th of April.

The 33rd anniversary of the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and mutual Aid:
— President Urho Kekkonen sent a telegram to the Soviet Party Leader and President Leonid Brezhnev on the occasion of the 33rd anniversary. He stressed the permanent meaning of the Treaty for the relations between our countries and noted its significance in promoting material and spiritual interaction.
— President Leonid Brezhnev's telegram to President Kekkonen noted President Kekkonen's contribution to the management of the Fenno-Soviet relations and expressed confidence that the relations will continue good also in the future.


In addressing a FCMA-seminar arranged by the Centre Party, Ahti Karjalainen, acting governor of the Bank of Finland, expressed his satisfaction of the development of the Fenno-Soviet trade, for with a regression in the Western export the significance of the export to the Soviet Union has grown.

The 33rd anniversary of the FCMA-Treaty was celebrated in Helsinki; the Soviet delegation was led by Vice-Minister of Interior B. Shumilin. He considered the long-term economic, commercial, and scientific-technical programme until 1995 as a significant proof of the functional usefulness of the FCMA-Treaty. Minister of Education Par Stenbäck noted in his speech that attitudes towards the Treaty in Finland are established and positive.


Fenno-Soviet Peace Days on the security of Northern Europe were arranged in Leningrad. A delegation of Peace Defenders participated.


The Fenno-Sudanese Economic, Technical and Scientific Joint Commission convened in Khartoum.


According to an opinion poll commissioned by the four major parties, the greatest concerns for Finns are preserving world peace and threat of war caused by continuous armament. In a corresponding poll in 1979 the greatest concern was unemployment.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs appropriated 36 million marks of the development aid funds for a dock under construction in Vietnam; this is the long-term object of co-operation in the country.


A conference on solutions to the African refugee problem was held in Geneva. Representatives from more than 80 countries participated; Finland was represented by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen. The meeting was purely humanitarian and the aim was to collect 900 million dollars to secure the immediate needs of the refugees.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen gave a speech on the continuity of Finnish foreign policy. According to him, people generally take the present problem-free situation for granted and for a permanent achievement. This is not, however, the case but to preserve our status we must work constantly for our foreign policy line. This in turn means that the foreign political ability and experience of future presidential candidates are of great significance.


An exhibition of modern Finnish graphic art was opened in Peking. It is part of the first programme of cultural exchange concluded between Finland and China in 1980.


Delegations representing youth organizations from all the countries on the Baltic Sea and from Norway and Iceland convened in Denmark. Finnish representatives from the State Youth Council and Youth Commission took part in the meeting. The final communiqué expressed concern about the international situation. Also culture and leisure activities and youth tourism were discussed in the meeting.


The Social Democrat daily, "Suomen Sosiaalidemokraatti” reviewed Osmo Apunen's book "Paasikiven'Kekkosen linja” (the Paasikivi-Kekkonen Line) published in the USSR with an introduction by Yuri Komissarov. According to Komissarov, Apunen examines the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line in a wide inter- national context taking both internal and external factors into account. On the other hand, the Russian introduction notes, the Soviet Union does not agree with all Apunen's interpretations of the Finnish policy of neutrality. According to Komissarov, the most important part of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Aid consists of the military-political articles, in which Finland contracts not to take part in an attack against the Soviet Union and, under some conditions, also to repel such an attack in cooperation with the Soviet Union. Finnish conservatives tend to interpret the Treaty so that Finland strives to keep completely neutral under all circumstances. This, according to Komissarov, is against the general spirit of the Treaty.

According to an opinion poll commissioned by "Ilta-Sanomat”, a Finnish daily, 75 percent of Finns estimated Finnish foreign policy to have been conducted well or very well. Some 40 percent of those inter- viewed considered Finland's prestige to have grown in the world during recent years.


The Centre Party Chairman, Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen stated in a press conference after a session of Centre Party Delegates that anti-Kekkonen sentiments are on the increase in Finland. He also considered it deplorable that party members express their views on the question presidential candidates without the approval of the party leaders.


A visa exemption agreement with Saint Vincent and Grenadines.


The Press commented on Minister Väyrynen's negative attitude towards discussion on the presidential elections and stated that it is important that the matter be discussed, so that opinions on the issue become public.

"Ydin”, a magazine published by the Finnish Peace Movement, dealt in its 2/1981 issue with the discussion on the FCMA-Treaty raised by the 3rd Parliamentary Defence Committee. The article noted that Keijo Korhonen's view would have meant lessening of the overall significance for security of the Treaty so that political negotiations in solving crisis would have been given less importance and the measures meant in the treaty would be resorted to only after an aggression has taken place, which would have restricted Finland's choice.


In his First of May speech Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto said that Finland's international status is good in an unstable world, which is due to work done in the field of foreign policy. The FCMA-Treaty functions well as it is, and there is no need yet of speaking of the date of its extension or its new duration. Mr Koivisto dissociated himself from the "presidential game”.


A meeting of the national UNESCO commissions of the European area was held in Madrid. The Finnish delegation was led by Sakari Kiuru, director of the Finnish UNESCO Commission. The meeting dealt with central global problems and the possibilities of UNESCO to contribute towards solving them as well as European co-operation undertakings.


The Kevsos and Technical, Economic and Scientific joint commissions of Finland and the German Democratic Republic convened in Helsinki.


Nordic industrial federations published a common report. According to corporation directors, Nordic co-operation projects are rarely economically and commercially lucrative. The most negative attitudes were found among Danish directors, the most positive among Finnish and Swedish directors.


General Lauri Sutela, Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces, gave a speech at the 20th anniversary of the Society for the Defence Academy in Helsinki. According to him, Finland's territorial integrity is no longer absolute during a time of war, which is due to the development in arms technology and the deterioration of the global situation. On the other hand, the security political position of the Nordic region remains stable to the benefit of all concerned, which in turn counterbalances the global situation.

The Finnish CSCE delegation expressed concern about the work method accepted, because it may lead to a summary final act like the one accepted in the Belgrade conference. According to the Finnish delegation, the conference should aim at accepting new follow-up measures on the basis of the Helsinki Final Act.


A meeting of the Nordic Ministers of Industry in Helsinki.


Social Democratic Party chairman Kalevi Sorsa thinks that the extension of the FCMA-Treaty will become topical within the next two or three years. According to him the form of the Treaty is appropriate as it is.


The Madrid Conference reached unanimity on questions of contacts and uniting families. The agreement followed the proposal made by neutral and non-aligned countries and it may make it possible to come up with a concrete final act.


The EFTA prudential committee and council of ministers convened in Geneva. It was noted that the co-operation machinery developed over the years can handle issues that come up in the framework of the Free Trade Association in a way that is satisfactory to the member countries.


A 140 million mark contract on the construction of a new living community in Middle Nigeria was signed with the Nigerian Ministry for Housing and Environment.


The Cooperation Committee of the Nordic Social Democratic Parties and Trade Unions Movement (SAMK) convened in Bommarsvik, Sweden. The statement issued after it expressed anxiety about the accelerating arms race and about the standstill in the disarmament talks. It suggested that the Nordic countries find out the significance of the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone as a phase in the reduction of nuclear weapons in Europe in general.


The party Congress of the National Coalition Party was held in Helsinki. Representatives from other European Conservative parties, e.g. from Sweden, Norway, Austria and England, took part in the meeting. In the programme of principles accepted by the congress, the NCP gives its support to the active and peace-oriented policy of neutrality of the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line. The FCMA-Treaty is a fundamental document in Finland's foreign policy and stabilizes Finland's international status. The NCP supports extension of the treaty before the end of the decade, According to the Coalition Party, Nordic cooperation is another important field of foreign political cooperation. Finnish foreign policy should support endeavours to get the disarmament talks started again and to get the Madrid CSCE follow- up conference to a favourable conclusion.


A consultation meeting of the societies of friendship with the Soviet Union from four Nordic countries was held in Stockholm.


Minister of Defence Lasse Äikäs attended a meeting of the Nordic Ministers of Defence in Denmark. Common questions related to the UN Peace keeping Forces were discussed.


The Finnish Communist Party held its 19th conference of representatives in Helsinki. The conference was attended by a delegation from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, led by G.V. Romanov, member of the CPSU political commission and secretary of the Leningrad regional committee, and by representatives from the Communist parties of 23 other, both Socialist and Capitalist countries. According to the opinions expressed at the conference, the most difficult international problems are the possibility of a nuclear war, detente and the promotion of disarmament as well as the prevention of a technological and ecological catastrophe. As regards the presidential elections, the most important thing is to ensure the continuance of Urho Kekkonen's work in the form of a peace-orientated foreign policy on the basis of the FCMATreaty. It was noted that the Communists, Social Democrats and the Centre do not have a common, self- evident candidate, but the parties could agree on common principles to be applied in the election of the president. The Communist Party rejected those interpretations of the FCMA-Treaty that dissociate Finland from the cooperation stipulated in the Treaty.


A judicial agreement was signed by Hungary and Finland.


The Conference of European Ministers of Transport convened in Helsinki with the Finnish Ministers of Transport Veikko Saarto as chairman. The delegates were some hundred in all and the meeting dealt with energy problems related with traffic, investment in routes and traffic safety.


The Prime Ministers of the five Nordic countries met unofficially in Sweden. The issues discussed included the Nordic nuclear-free zone in the light of the various suggestions made recently. It was noted, however, that the cabinet-level stances have remained the same.


A co-operation conference of European peace movements was held in Stockholm. A delegation of the Finnish Peace Defenders participated.


The negotiating board on the economic relations with developing countries demands that Finland keeps her promise to increase her development aid to 0.32 percent of the GNP, which would mean 730 million marks in the 1982 budget.


The European Council's Fifth Parliamentary Conference on Sciences was held in Espoo. The Conference discussed the problems arising from technological development and the possibilities of coping with the social changes caused by the rapid development. It was recommended that an advisory board be founded; this would consist of decision makers and scientists and aim at directing the progress of technology.


The Finnish Social Democratic Party held its 32th party congress in Pori. Guests from 20 countries' Social Democratic parties took part in the congress, among them Olof Palme from the Swedish SDP and the vice-chairman of the SDP of the German Federal Republic, Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski.

According to the foreign political document published, the party strives at working for detente and disarmament against the present accelerating armament as well as for bettering living conditions in the underdeveloped countries. The Finnish foreign policy rests on the good relations with the Soviet Union based on the FCMA-Treaty and with the Nordic countries. The Finland's development aid must be raised to 0.7 per-cent of the GNP before 1987. According to the defence political programme approved, foreign policy is the main instrument of defence policy. The development of the defence forces should be in proportion to the satisfaction of other needs and the real value of the defence spending should be kept on the present level. The domestic acquisitions of the defence forces should not lead to arms export. Also five statements on international politics were issued.


The Finnish Committee for Promoting Security in Europe appealed in a letter to all the European heads of state so that the CSCE process could continue under all circumstances. At the same time the letter encouraged the search for new ways of stimulating the disarmament talks and hastening the convening of the European disarmament conference.


The 75th anniversary of the Centre Party was celebrated in Lahti. The festal statement emphasized the importance of continuing our policy of neutrality along the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line on the basis of the FCMA-Treaty. Guest delegations from the Centre Parties of Sweden and Norway took part in the celebrations.


The party congress of the Swedish People's Party of Finland was held in Kokkola. The congress gave its support to the views presented by the 3rd Parliamentary Defence Committee as regards defence policy. It was also noted that the FCMA-Treaty ensures stable development. The SPP demanded that the development aid be increased to 0.32 percent of the GNP in 1982.


A conference of the OECD countries ministers took place in Paris. The Finnish delegation was led by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen, according to whom great countries should take heed the effect their economic policies have on the economies of other countries. He also noted that measures restricting free trade have increased lately.


President Kekkonen was granted the Ralph Buche Institute prize for his achievements in his work for peace, international cooperation and national rights to self- government. The previous prize-winners include the UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim and the Swedes Alva and Gunnar Myrdal.


An international women's march for peace on the initiative of Nordic women was arranged from Copenhagen to Paris. A kernel group of 10 women from Finland marched in it.


A Nordic peace conference was held in Mariehamn, Aland Islands. The participants totalled 400. The Finnish participants were delegations from the Finnish Peace League and the Finnish UN Association. President Kekkonen sent his greeting to the assembly. An appeal published requested guarantees by the great powers for a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone, which the meeting considered an important step towards general disarmament.


The 7th Peace Days of the North Cap Region were held in Alta. Representatives from the Finland-Soviet Union Friendship Society and from the Finnish Peace Defenders, participated in it.


The Soviet President Leonid Breznev gave a statement on the nuclear-weapons-free zone to "Suomen Sosialidemokraatti” - According to him, the Soviet Union is prepared to give guarantees to the countries belonging to the zone that it will not use nuclear weapons against these countries. At the same time the Soviet Union is ready to negotiate on measures concerning its own territory bordering the Nordic nuclear- free zone.


In Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen's opinion President Leonid Breznev's statement on the nuclear- free zone in the Nordic region is a constructive and positive part of the discussion on the matter. The part of the statement dealing with the Soviet Union will give impetus to the matter.

The Social Democratic Party stated that President Leonid Breznev's statement on the nuclear-weapon-free Nordic region reveals a positive attitude towards the issue.


The meeting of the chairmen of the European Democratic Union (EDU) was held in Salzburg, Austria. The Finnish participants were a National Coalition Party delegation led by Chairman Ilkka Suominen and Vice-chairman Ingvar S. Melin as the representative of the Swedish People's Party.


The Socialist International convened in Bonn. The Finnish representatives were SDP chairman Kalevi Sorsa and Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto. The SI considered disarmament negotiations on the European middle-range missiles to be the most urgent issue of the time.


On Finnish proposal, the Madrid CSCE follow-up conference decided to adjourn for three months to solve the stand-still in the negotiations. These are to be continued unofficially towards drawing up a balanced final act by the end of December.


A Nordic Nuclear-Free Zone Happening of the Nordic youth was arranged in Trondheim. There were 300 participants from Finland.


The third Friendship Festival of the Soviet and Finnish Youth was held. The seminars of the festival sought for new practical forms of co-operation. The statement published demanded measures for ending the arms race and for forming the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone. Presidents Leonid Brezhnev and Urho Kekkonen sent their greetings to the festival.


The Nordic Factory Workers' Federation convened in Helsinki and appealed to the governments of the Nordic countries for the establishment of the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone.

The Nordic ministers of social affairs signed a co-Nordic labour market agreement, according to which health personnel educated in one Nordic country is qualified to work in all Nordic countries.


The Central Organization of the Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) condemns President Reagan's decision to begin producing and storing neutron bombs. It will increase tension in Europe and lower for its part the threshold of nuclear war in the whole world.

The Finnish government published a statement on the US decision on the production of neutron weapons. According to it, the decision may accelerate the arms race between the great powers and puts the efforts for disarmament in a questionable light. The Finnish government appeals to all the parties concerned to break the vicious circle of the arms race.

The Iraqi State Construction Organization made a 600 million mark deal with the Finnish Perasto work-conglomerate on the construction of multi-use houses and public buildings.


A UN energy conference on new end renewing sources of energy was held in Nairobi. Minister of Trade and Industry Pirkko Työläjärvi noted in her address that Finland can give assistance to the developing countries in solving their energy problems, because our country has experience in the planning of energy administration and in the use of renewing energy.


The fourth Fenno-Soviet Friendship Towns Conference was held in Tampere. There were some 150 participants from the Soviet Union; the main delegation was by E. A. Sarkisov, vice-chairman of the Soviet League of Friendship Societies.


The Working Commission of the Centre Party, the Party Commission of the Social Democratic Party, the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the parliamentary group of the National Coalition Party expressed their concern about the US Government decision to begin producing neutron bombs. The stands taken stated that the introduction of every new type of weapon accelerates the arms race.


— A contract on another stage of the Kostamus conctruction was made in Helsinki between the Finnish Finn-Stroi Ltd and the Soviet foreign trade organization V/C Prommashimport. The deal was worth 2.3 billion marks.
— A deal to the value of BOO million marks was made between Valmet and the Soviet V/C Sudoimport. Valmet will deliver 13 vessels to the Soviet Union in 1983— 1984.


A long-term treaty on economic, technical and scientific cooperation and payments was concluded between Finland and Bulgaria.


The development aid section of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs had an opinion poll made and according to it so 80 percent of Finns were prepared to increase the development aid. Young people had a more positive attitude towards the aid than older people.

Wärtsila will deliver nine ships meant for arctic conditions to the Soviet Union in 1983-84. The deal was worth over a billion marks and was made with the Soviet V/C Sudoimport.


Sweden introduced a new proposal for the Nordsat satellite in the Nordic Council of Ministers committee on the issue. The proposal entailed reductions in the original Nordsat proposal but expansion of the Swedish Tele-X plan.


The Soviet Union ordered two multiuse ships meant for arctic conditions from Valmet. The deal was worth some 500 million marks.


A meeting of Nordic Foreign Ministers was in Copenhagen. The final communiqué of the meeting mentioned for the first time the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone as an objective and it was noted that the foreign ministers had informed each other of those conditions that have bearing on each country's work for the nuclear-free zone and that are based on the countries' different security political positions. The Nordic countries also expressed their concern about the deterioration of the international situation and condemned the South African invasion on Angola.


In the parliamentary budget discussions, the leaders of the parliamentary groups of the Social Democratic Party, the Finnish People's Democratic League and the Centre Party demanded activity in the realization of the Nordic nuclear-free zone.


An International Peace Bureau seminar on nuclear-weapon- free zones and on the Second UN Special Session on Disarmament as well as the annual IPB meeting were held in Helsinki. Also the Secretary of the Geneva Disarmmament Committee and the Special Enroy of the UN Secretary-General Rikhi Jamal the lPBchairman Sean McBride and Brigade General Michael Harrbottle from the World Disarmament Campaign attended the meetings.


The Swedish People's Party published its international programme. It stressed the importance of Finland's independence and world peace. Finland's foreign policy is based on the FCMA-Treaty, good relations with the Nordic countries and a policy of neutrality based on these. The amount of development aid should be raised to one percent of GNP. The security political part of the programme emphasizes the significance of limitations on armament.


The 27th session of the Fenno-Soviet Scientific-Technical Joint Commission was held in Moscow. Issues discussed included the present situation in the co-operation, the order of realization of the long- term programme, possibilities of cooperation in natural and social sciences and in the arctic regions of the Soviet Union.


The minutes of the Fenno-Hungarian Joint Commission were signed. Attempts will be made to develop oil refining technology and energy administration.


The President's Office announced that, due to illness, the President will be unable to perform his duties for one month. His duties during this time were performed by PM Mauno Koivisto whose deputy was Minister of Interior Eino Uusitalo.

The Wärtsila docks in Turku received an order for gas-tankers worth 300 million marks from Venezuela. The ships will be delivered in 1983.


Valmet got an order of over 100 million marks from Georgia, US.


A UN conference on the problems of the least developed countries was held in Paris. Wilhelm Breitenstein, leader of the Finnish delegation, stressed the meaning to the under-developed countries of concrete aid given by all the countries in the world. As regards Finland, he reaffirmed that Finland will raise her development aid to 0.7 percent of the GNP during the latter half of the decade and will aim at directing at least 30 percent of it to the least developed countries.


The Fenno-Nigerian Economic, Technical and Scientific Joint Commission convened in Helsinki to discuss development of the bilateral cooperation.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen led the Finnish delegation to the United Nations General Assembly. In addressing the Assembly Minister Väyrynen stated that political attitudes have grown tenser, which in turn has accelerated the arms race. As regards the situations in the Middle East and Southern Africa, Finland supports the solution models presented by the UN Security Council and repeated that Finland will increase her development aid to achieve the 0.7 percent goal.


The Communist Party announced that it and the Finnish People's Democratic League will nominate a candidate of their own for the coming presidential elections.


SDP chairman Kalevi Sorsa took part in the meetings of the disarmament council of the Socialist International and the SI Office. In the latter meeting he suggested that a conference of the European non-nuclear states be convened. Both those countries belonging to a military alliance and those outside them that have contracted not to acquire nuclear weapons could take part in it.


The Cabinet granted a license to Citibank from the US, the first foreign bank in Finland.


According to the proposal for a budget submitted by the Government to the Parliament, development aid is to be 720 million marks in 1982, or 0.32 percent of the GNP. The rise is 32 percent compared with the former aid.

Finland recognized the state of Belize, formerly British Honduras.


Finland presented its proposal for a co-Nordic TV-satellite in Copenhagen. According to it, the satellite would transfer ordinary TV services and would in addition contain a co-Nordic channel which would send programme chosen from the normal transmissions of the television corporations of the five Nordic countries.


Kalevi Sorsa refuted the claims that Mauno Koivisto's relations with the East were not good and stated that these relations were in good shape and no distinction could be made between different persons in this respect. Mr Sorsa recalled that he had suggested over a year ago that initiatives be taken by Finland in the extension of the FCMA-Treaty, but that Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen had rejected the suggestion. Mr Väyrynen had put forward his own opinion that the Treaty will be extended when the issue becomes actual.

The annual UNESCO Prize of Education was shared this year by Helena Kekkonen, a Finnish, who is the secretary general of the co-operation organization of the Free Cultural Work, and the International Scout Movement.


According to an opinion poll commissioned by the planning committee of the Defence Information Service (MTS), 93 percent of Finns consider that the Finnish foreign policy has been conducted well. In the 1970s the corresponding figure was 85 %. The FCMA-Treaty was considered positive for Finland's status by 81 percent, from 72 to 92 among the supporters of the four major parties. The defence spending was considered adequate by nearly 50 percent and about one third supported a rise in it.


Mr Sorsa repeated his suggestion on the extension of the FCMA-Treaty. According to him, the Treaty has satisfied Finland's need for security and created a foundation for a central part of our foreign and trade policy to such an extent that the extension must be agreed on in good time to ensure the stability of our status.

The Swedish People's Party celebrated its 75th anniversary.


It was announced that President Kekkonen's sick leave was to continue till November 10.


The Cabinet published the programme it had approved for bilateral development aid for different countries in 1982—1984. The aid will be total 1.2 billion marks. The amount of development aid to the traditional co-operation development countries Tunisia, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Zambia will be increased by 1985. Aid for Egypt will increase most in 1982. According to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, after her independence Namibia will become a new co-operation partner.


The ninth session of the Fenno-Comecon Joint Commission was held in Ulan-Bator in Mongolia. The Finnish delegation was led by Minister of Foreign Trade Esko Rekola. Co-operation will be increased in the fields of trade, transport, and science and technology.


The Administrative Board of the Centre Party issued a statement according to which it is not proper at this stage to have a public discussion on the person of President Kekkonen's successor. On the other hand, the principles on the basis of which the successor will be elected should be discussed. In the Centre Party view, most emphasis in the presidential election should be put on the management of foreign policy, and the person elected should be the best in this respect.


On the occasion of the UN Disarmament Week: — The League Board of the Finnish People's Democratic League gave a statement in which it considered positive the participation of ever wider circles of citizens in the activities related to the week. The statement also stressed the importance of teaching peace work and internationalism and demanded that these subjects be introduced into the curriculum of different educational institutions.-The parliamentary group of the Centre Party published a statement according to which the recent discussion on the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone had advanced the issue and the realization of the issue should not be delayed by tying it up with other European disarmament questions, although it does have connections with the general situation in Europe.


The Finnish main event of the UN Disarmament Week was arranged in Helsinki.


The Fenno-Libyan Economic Joint Commission held its second session in Libya to discuss the possibilities for Finns to participate in various construction projects in Libya.


President Kekkonen announced that he will resign the presidential duties permanently because of ill health. The Cabinet appointed Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto to take care of the presidential duties and decided that the election of the council of electors is to take place on January 17—18 1982 and the new president will be elected on the 26th of January.In statements given on the President's resignation, representatives of the Government and of various parties emphasized his achievements in strengthening the foreign political status of Finland and in building national unity.

The Madrid Conference convened after the adjournment. No clearly positive results could be reached on the basis of the summer- autumn negotiations yielded. The final act was supposed to be ready by Christmas.


There was a total turnout of 120,000, some 30,000 in Helsinki alone in the marches for peace arranged all over Finland in connection with the UN Disarmament Week.

Representatives of the Committee of Finnish Youth Organizations handed to Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen a petition for peace and disarmament signed by 160,000 young people.


President Leonid Brezhnev sent a telegram to President Kekkonen on the occasion of his resignation. It expressed confidence in the continuance of the Kekkonen line and the relations based on trust between the countries also during the presidency of the new president.

The Wärtsila dock in Turku received a 700 million mark ship contract from Norway. The vessels will be delivered during 1982 and 1983. The deal is one of the biggest single export deals in Finnish metal industry.

A long-term treaty on trade between Finland and Romania was signed.


Ahti Karjalainen, acting governor of the Bank of Finland, stressed the equilibrium of the trade between Finland and the EC in his review of the free-trade agreement between Finland and the European Community. According to him, trade with the EC-countries has developed more positively than could be expected at the time the agreement was concluded and that there has been no excessive increase in the import, as was dreaded at the time.


Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto gave an interview to "Westdeutcher Rundfunk” (FRG). He said that according to the FCMA-Treaty Finland will defend her own territory if she is attacked. The eventual need for help in such a situation will be agreed on in negotiations between the contracting parties. The realization of a nuclear-free zone in the Nordic region depends on how the Nordic countries come to terms on the basis of each country’s own point of departure. He stressed, however, the significance of the nuclear states’ attitude towards the realization of the issue.

The Finnish co-operative Metex signed a 300 million mark deal with the Soviet V/O Machinoimport. The deal covers deliveries of pumping station buildings on the gas pipeline from Siberia to Western Europe.


The Disarmament Council of the Socialist International visited the United States. The Council's chairman Kalevi Sorsa met UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. The aim of the Council was to find out US views on the disarmament folks.


Johannes Virolainen, a contender for the Centre Party presidential nomination, held a speech on his foreign policy lines. According to him, Finland's present international status is good despite the increasing tension in the world. This is President Kekkonen's most important achievement and is based on Paasikivi's activity during his presidency and on a creative implementation of the FCMA-Treaty. The Treaty has enabled us to create relations based on trust with the East without forgetting our Nordic neighbours. In Virolainen's opinion, political integration is not a suitable solution for Finland under any circumstances, but activity for flexible foreign trade policy should neither be forgotten.

Finland and Malaysia signed a treaty on economic and technical cooperation in Kuala Lumpur.


The Friendship Month and the 64th anniversary of the October Revolution were celebrated in Helsinki. The celebration had been arranged by the Finland-Soviet Union Society. Minister of Education Kalevi Kivistö met J. N. Vertshenko, member of the central administrative board of the Soviet Union-Finland Society and Secretary of the Soviet Authors' Union.

A Fenno-Soviet fishing document which stipulates for fishing quotas in the territorial waters of the other contracting party was signed in Helsinki. At the same time, a fishing agreement of permanent nature was signed.


President Urho Kekkonen sent a personal telegram to President Leonid Brezhnev and thanked for his greeting and assured that the good relations between the two countries will continue. He also congratulated on the anniversary of the October Revolution. Also acting President Mauno Koivisto sent a congratulating telegram to President Brezhnev on the occasion of the anniversary.

The Nordic ministers responsible for regional policy convened in Helsinki. The Finnish representative was the acting Prime Minister, Minister of the Interior Eino Uusitalo. It was decided to develop co-operation in regional policy on the basis of the existing activity programme and to pay special attention to those regions that are at a disadvantage: the North Cap Area, the Faroe Islands and Iceland.

According to Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen, Finland will not interfere in the submarine conflict between Sweden and the Soviet Union. He, however, considered the incident deplorable.


The council of representatives of the Liberal People's Party nominated Mrs Helvi Sipilä as their presidential candidate on her merits in international politics gained in her position as a UN Assistant Secretary-General.


The League Board of the Finnish People's Democratic League nominated Minister of Education Kalevi Kivisto for the presidency because of the wide support enjoyed by him in the basic organizations of the FPDL, The League meeting of the FPDL discussed the interpretation of the Finnish policy of neutrality. The Communist Party chairman Aarne Saarinen criticized Paavo Väyrynen's book "Kansallisia kysymyksiä” (national issues), which, according to Mr. Saarinen, stresses Finnish neutrality too much. According to Saarinen Finland must conduct independent foreign policy, but our country is not, however, unaligned, because it has concluded the FCMA-Treaty. The League meeting also discussed the content of the term neutrality.

The acting president, Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto gave a speech on foreign policy in Forssa. He referred to the inheritance of J.K. Paasikivi and Urho Kekkonen and stated that the majority of citizens have a positive attitude towards good neighbourliness. But the maintenance of good relations requires continuous work also between countries that are geographically close. As regards the FCMA-Treaty, Koivisto said that nothing has happened to give reason to interpret the Treaty in a new way.


The Nordic ministers of justice and the Juridical Commission of the Nordic Council convened in Turku to discuss the prevention of the distribution of video cassettes containing violence and the penalties for drug offences; there were differences of views on these issues.


The Central Union of Industry commented on the presidential issue. According to it, industry demands that support be given to such persons or parties as have actively developed diversified foreign trade on the basis of market economy and the trade with the Soviet Union, which promote employment. This ensures employment and our international competitiveness best.

The Fenno-Cuban Economic, Technical, and Scientific Joint Commission convened in Havanna. It was noted that the Fenno-Cuban trade had become more balanced during 1981.


The annual negotiations of the Fenno-Egyptian development co-operation were held in Cairo. Finland will finance co-operation projects in Egypt for 125 million marks during the next three years. The emphasis will be on energy administration and health services.


The FPDL published its electoral declaration which emphasizes the continuance of Urho Kekkonen's life work to secure active and peace-orientated policy of neutrality on the basis of the FCMA-Treaty and to strengthen security in Europe even after his presidency.


The Swedish People's Party nominated Jan-Magnus Jansson, editor-in-chief, for the presidency in an extraordinary party congress.

The Rural Party nominated Veikko Vennamo. The party announced that in the decisive ballot the RP electors will vote for Mauno Koivisto.


The National Coalition Party nominated Chairman Harri Holkeri in an extraordinary party congress. In his acceptance speech, Mr. Holkeri assured that he will ensure the continuance of the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line as an active and peace-orientated policy of neutrality for detente and disarmament. He also stressed the significance of the continuity of the good relations between the Soviet Union and Finland and the importance of strengthening our country's international status.


A petition for the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones in Europe and for cuts in armament was handed to the ambassadors to Finland of 19 NATO and Warsaw Pact States to be forwarded to the governments of the countries in question. The initiative for the petition came from Academician Georg Henrik von Wright, and the signers included the Paasikivi Society chairman Jan-Magnus Jansson, Archbishop Mikko Juva, representatives of four labour unions and of various fields of science.


Negotiations on balancing the Fenno-Czechoslovakian trade by means of a long-term Commercial programme were held in Helsinki.


The Party Council of the Social Democratic Party nominated Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto for the presidency.

Ahti Karjalainen stated in a speech on foreign policy that in facing the new challenges of international politics Finland needs an experienced head of state and denied the claims according to which the most important decisions in Finnish foreign and security policies have already been made. According to Mr Karjalainen, future problems will be more global than before and the new president must be able to adapt Finland's traditional active line of policy to this framework.


On accepting the SDP candidacy, Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto noted that Finland's international status is more stable than ever before in our history. The FCMA-Treaty has made enabled many-sided cooperation with the Soviet Union and will provide a basis for strengthening good neighbourliness in the future. At the same time we have close ties with the Nordic countries and the relations with other countries are in good shape. Mr. Koivisto considered armament and the great number of arms as well as the decreased possibilities of continuous economic growth as the immediate global problems. According to him, the application of the active and peace-orientated policy of the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line is difficult in the present world.


Pravda presented Dr Kekkonen's presidency and noted that the responsibility for continuing his foreign policy lines will rest on those who have supported him, which applies to the Centre Party in particular when they choose their candidate on the 22nd of November.

The Finnish Government made a decision to participate in the first phase of the Nordsat project, which consists of a two-year planning. The decision to take part in the actual project will be made only after this.

A visa exemption agreement with Andorra.


The Centre Party held its party congress in Kuopio. D.Sc. Johannes Virolainen was nominated as the party's presidential candidate after election. The election was preceded by a lively discussion in which Dr Virolainen's foreign political ability and experience were questioned on the basis of a letter written by President Kekkonen two years earlier. The party leaders and the party committee had earlier given their support to Ahti Karjalainen by appealing to his foreign political experience. After his nomination Mr. Virolainen stressed the importance of foreign policy in the presidential duties and stated that the relations between Finland and the Soviet Union require continuous work and mutual trust also in the future to secure the achievements already gained.


The Nordic Council of Ministers decided in Copenhagen to propose in the next Nordic Council session the sending of a co-Nordic TV-satellite into space. The intention is to investigate the matter more closely for two years before the takeoff.


The Finnish Christian League nominated Raino Westerholm as their presidential candidate in an extraordinary party congress.


The Finnish Communist Party published a proclamation on foreign policy according to which there is tendency in Finland to change our country's status internationally in the name of the so-called policy of neutrality. The FCP states that the FCMA-Treaty does not only have bearing on Fenno-Soviet relations but it is the basis for Finland's whole foreign policy and its active development. Finnish foreign policy must be consistent and active peace policy.

The Christian League candidate, Mr. Westerholm said that the solution to the Middle East problem can be found on the basis of UN resolutions 242 and 338. According to him, these do not presuppose that Israel withdraw from the regions occupied in 1967. Mr Westerholm emphasized that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.


The Finnish Physicians for Social Responsability movement held its first symposium in Siuntio. Issues discussed included a physician's responsibility in the prevention of war and development cooperation.


An EFTA conference of ministers was held in Geneva; the Finnish Minister of Foreign Trade Esko Rekola concentrated in his speech on such State subsidiaries to industry as distorting healthy international competition.


The Union Bank of Finland was the first Finnish bank to get a license to establish a branch office abroad, in Singapore.

Finland recognized the state of Antigua-Barbuda situated in the Caribbean.


The first panel discussion related to the presidential elections was held on Radio Sweden (Sveriges Radio). The presidential candidates of the five major parties took part in it.

The Constitutional Conservative Party did not choose a presidential candidate of their own, but announced that it will vote for the SDP candidate Mauno Koivisto in the decisive ballot.


Professor Jan Magnus Jansson, presidential candidate of the Swedish People's Party, stated in Oulu that Finland can hardly gain any results in the Madrid CSCE follow-up conference by new initiatives in addition to those it has already presented if the great power relations remain tense or grow more tense. Finland must concentrate on the fundamentals of her foreign policy, that is, on good bilateral relations above all with her neighbours the Soviet Union and Sweden. At the same time we must keep contact with the Soviet Union and other countries and seek common viewpoints that make new initiatives for detente possible.


The Fenno-Soviet Economic Co-operation Commission convened in Helsinki. New objects of co-operation were sought in third countries and in the arctic regions of the Soviet Union. During the session, Finnish enterprises signed deals on deliveries to the Soviet Union worth 4.5 billion marks.


Kalevi Kivistö, chairman of the Finnish People's Democratic League, in an interview granted to the periodical "Me”, criticized officials in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs for pursuing a passive, withdrawing policy of neutrality instead of an active foreign policy. According to him, the articles of the FCMA-Treaty can be stressed in different ways depending on what value the Treaty is given as the basic document of Finnish foreign policy. According to Mr. Kivistö, the Centre Party considers it to regulate only relations between Finland and the Soviet Union, whereas the Left sees that the Treaty forms a framework for the whole Finnish policy of neutrality.

The document on the exchange of goods between Finland and the Soviet Union for 1982 was signed. The signers were Ministers of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev from the Soviet Union and Esko Rekola from Finland. The Fenno-Soviet trade will be 31 billion marks according to the agreement, Import of raw oil, machinery and equipment from the Soviet Union will increase and products of the metal industries will constitute about half of the Finnish export.


The Coalition Party candidate Harri Holkeri suggested that discussion on the Nordic nuclear-weapon- free zone be transferred onto government level. The Nordic Council is not, however, the right place for this discussion from the Finnish point of view.


A telegram sent by President Leonid Brezhnev as a reply to President Kekkonen's congratulations on the anniversary of the October Revolution stressed the significance of President Kekkonen's personal contribution. Acting President Mauno Koivisto also received a telegram. Both telegrams emphasized the meaning of the FCMA-Treaty for the Fenno-Soviet relations and the efforts of the leaders of the two countries to further promote these good relations based on trust.


The FPDL chairman Kalevi Kivistö gave a speech on the increased world tension and its effect on the Nordic region, which affects Finland most. He thinks the goal should be to widen the nuclear-free zone gradually from the Arctic Ocean to the Mediterranean.


The Nordic prime ministers and the Nordic Council Presidium met in Helsinki to prepare the next session of the Nordic Council in March 1982. The prime ministers agreed that security policy will still not be discussed in the Nordic Council, The meeting also dealt with the 1953 agreement on co-Nordic labour market and how to adapt it to the present situation.


Presidential candidates Holkeri, Jansson, Kivisto, Helvi Sipilä, Vennamo Westerholm and Virolainen as well as Mauno Koivisto's political secretary Paavo Lipponen took part in a panel discussion arranged by the Paasikivi Society. According to the views presented, Finland must continue the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line in foreign policy and must be active in her foreign policy only when the activity can be expected to yield results.


The Parliament sanctioned in the 1982 budget the amount of 720 million marks for development aid, which is the intermediary goal of 0.32 percent of the GNP. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs drafted a principle decision for the Government; according to it development aid would reach the goal of 0.7 percent of the GNP in 1988. Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen referred in a speech to the carrier situation and the salary level of those working at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. These, according to him, do not correspond to the level of other branches of administration, which is why the Ministry does not have at its disposal the best possible personnel, who seek themselves to other fields. This is not favourable for our foreign policy.


Party leaders commented the state of war declared in Poland. All of them saw the situation as deplorable, but stated that it is a question of Poland's internal affairs and hoped that the situation would not deteriorate. The Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions stated that the matter is Poland's internal affair but stressed a peaceful solution to the Polish problems by means of negotiations, which, according to the COFTU, presupposes liberation of the imprisoned trade union leaders.


The Governmental Committee for Foreign Affairs convened to deliberate the Polish situation. It was not considered necessary to issue a statement on the matter. According to Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen the government follows the development of the situation.


The political committee of the Finnish Communist Party published a statement on the Polish situation. According to it, the political solution to the problem is a solely Polish concern and all outside intervention is to be condemned. The FCP understands the actions taken by the military leadership and stated that the state of war ensures possibilities for solving the problems.

The neutral and non-aligned CSCE countries submitted a draft for a final act to the consideration of the Madrid CSCE follow-up conference. The draft made by the Finnish delegation was a comprehensive document and contained also the problematic human rights questions and measures for promoting trust.


Acting President Mauno Koivisto said in an event arranged by the Labour Movement Peace Forum in Stockholm that Finns are largely unanimous about the advantages of the foreign policy realized by President Kekkonen. According to Mr. Koivisto a great majority of citizens support its continuance also in the future and other states rely on that. Mr. Koivisto expressed his concern about the Polish situation, but stated that it is mainly Poland's internal affair.

Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen stated after the 36th session of the UN General Assembly that it had been characterized by controversies and opposing views on the East- West relations. Positive, according to him, was the beginning of the talks on Euromissiles in Geneva and the preparations made for the second disarmament session of the UN General Assembly in June/July.


President Urho Kekkonen and acting President Mauno Koivisto congratulated President Leonid Brezhnev on the occasion of his 75th birthday. Both telegrams stressed Mr Brezhnev's achievements in the development of the Fenno-Soviet relations and his work for international co-operation and peace.

The CSCE follow-up conference was adjourned till the beginning of February when the negotiations on the final act are to begin again. On the last day of the autumn conference the Western countries used a sharper tone when referring to the Polish situation.


The Christian League presidential candidate Raino Westerholm thinks that the Israel decision to add the Golan Hills to its territory must be seen in the light of the country's safety, although it was not wise because of the one-sidedness of the decision. He also saw that The UN Security Council acted against its own former resolution in condemning the Israeli decision.

The delegation of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions published a statement on the election of the Council of Presidential Electors. The COFTU gives its support to the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line and appreciates President Kekkonen's work in its creation. The elections involve a question of continuing and developing the active and peace-orientated policy of neutrality on the basis of the FCMA-Treaty.

Speaker Johannes Virolainen visited Stockholm on a campaign tour. He spoke about the language and school issues concerning the Finns in Sweden and about living conditions in Finland and Sweden. Mr. Virolainen met the Swedish Prime Minister Thorbjörn Fälldin and representatives of the Swedish Centre Party.


A working group on war material export subjected its report to the Minister for Defence. According to the report, the main part of the export consists of detonation material and power. The share of the actual weapons is some 15 percent. In average, half of the export has gone to neutral European countries and about a quarter to developing countries. The real value of the export has remained the same during the past years.


The Swedish-speaking editorial staff of the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation had invited all eight presidential candidates to an electoral debate. The candidates refuted the claim that foreign political discussion were the prerogative of a small inside clique and constrained repetition of the same things. They claimed that the basic facts of foreign policy must be stressed. The candidates also agreed that Finland must show restrain in commenting on such events as the Polish situation or the submarine incident in the Swedish coastal waters, because they do not have bearing on the Finns.