Dokumentarkiv och kronologi för Finlands utrikespolitik

År 1975 i Finlands utrikespolitik


Finland's KEVSOS agreements with Hungary, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia came into force. A statute was issued on the rulings concerning the country of origin mentioned in the agreements.


UN Assistant Secretary General Helvi Sipilä suggested that Finland become a forerunner in the UN Women's Year by founding a fund for voluntary contributions to realize the programme in the developing countries. Sipilä spoke at the opening of the Women's Year in Turku.


The Bank of Finland tightened its monetary regulations from the beginning of the year.
A delegation for the Foreign Affairs Committee met Tanzanian Foreign Minister Jon Malecela on its week-long visit in Tanzania. The delegation acquainted itself with the work of the Finnish Embassy and Finnish-Tanzanian development cooperation.


Finland established diplomatic relations with Bahrain.


According to a Gallup poll by Helsingin Sanomat, approximately every third Finn was unable to state whom he/she would vote for in the next presidential elections. Urho Kekkonen, Ahti Karjalainen and Mauno Koivisto gained the most support.


British Minister of Trade Peter Shore arrived in Finland on an official 2-day visit.


The Metal Workers' Union withdrew its embargo on 1000 tons of Chilean copper. The copper had been standing at Outokumpu since June.


Swedish Minister of Defence Eric Holmqvist arrived on a 3-day visit.


Foreign Minister of the FRG Hans-Dietricli Genscher arrived in Finland on a 2-day visit. Talks on the CSCE as well as on bilateral political and economic relations between Finland and the FRG were on the agenda of the visit. Genseher was the first Foreign Minister of the FRG to pay an official visit to Finland.

Finland became a member of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD in Paris.


The deficit in the balance of trade rose to nearly 5 billion Fmk in 1974. The rise in the cost of energy was seen as the main cause of this deficit. In 1974 the Soviet Union rose to number one position as exporter of goods to Finland.

In an interview for Yugoslavian television, Foreign Minister Ahti Karjalainen stated that the Second Stage of the CSCE had in the main questions advanced far enough for work to be brought to a conclusion in the near future.


Swedish Minister of Education Bertil Zachrisson arrived in Finland on a 3-day visit.

Czechoslovakian Foreign Minister Bohuslav Chnoupek arrived on an official 5-day visit. The visit was concluded with the signing of an agreement eliminating compulsory visas for Finns travelling to Czechoslovakia (entered force on April 1, 1975) and an agreement preventing double taxation.


Finland cannot, in today's world, build her security emphasizing reliance on arms, stated Foreign Minister Ahti Karjalainen at the opening of the 55th Defence Course in Helsinki, referring to the fact that the disproportion of the military resources of great powers and small states is continually growing. He also stated that his attitude to the defence forces and the military is not negative. Minister Karjalainen was referring to a statement of his at an interview, in which he said that in modern warfare our army is not of decisive importance to the fate of our nation. This "pacifist statement” had aroused much attention.


According to World Bank statistics, Finland's GNP per capita between 1967 and 1972 averaged $ 28 10, which placed Finland twelfth in the world.


Chairman of the Swedish Centre Party Thorbjörn Fälldin suggested that President Urho Kekkonen be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Assistant Director of the World Bank Shahid Husain paid a visit to Finland.


The second IPU conference on security and cooperation commenced in Belgrade. The appeal to governments participating in the CSCE, expressed in the communique of the meeting, to bring the Conference to a hasty conclusion, was of importance from Finland's point of view. The political part of Finland's proposal on studying nuclear-free zones at a special meeting of experts and parliamentarians was also included in the document. Nordic cooperation in the field of energy was foremost on the agenda at the Nordic Prime Ministers' meeting in Oslo. The meeting was preceded by a Conference for Nordic Ministers of Industry in Gothenburg. The idea of founding a Nordic investment bank was once again brought to life at the meeting.


The profit of the Chile collection in October 1974, 1 630 000 Fmk, was handed over to representatives of the Chilean resistance.


The Sorsa government received the highest marks from the people, for its foreign policy, according to an interview survey carried out by Taloustutkimus Oy. The government received least praise for its economic policy.


The government decided that Finland will receive circa 30 new refugees from Chile.


The State Council appointed the Committee on Disarmament to study questions related to disarmament. Ilkka Pastinen, Special Adviser at the Foreign Ministry, was appointed chairman of the Committee.


The Finnish Red Cross handled international catastrophe aid totalling 3.7 million Fmk in 1974. Aid was given to 20 countries in all. Over half of the aid was catastrophe aid channelled by the government.


Chairman of SAK (The Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions) Pekka Oivio demanded that multinational corporations and capital flows be controlled, in a speech in Oulu.


The Namibia Council, which Finland was elected a member of in December 1974, held its first sitting in 1975. Finland's UN Ambassador Aarne Karhilo drew attention to Finland's long-standing activity on behalf of the sovereignty and independence of the people of Namibia. Counsellor Heikki Talvitie was chosen as vice chairman of the Council.


The Finnish Broadcasting Company decided to expand its Moscow correspondent's post to a special USSR bureau.


The 6-day 23rd plenum of the Nordic Council commenced in Reykjavik. The main subjects of discussion were the founding of a Nordic investment bank and questions related to energy. The Council approved over 20 recommendations for developing Nordic cooperation.


President Kekkonen's suggestions concerning Nordic security are deserving of re-examination, said Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa in his speech at the plenum of the Nordic Council. On the way to Reykjavik, Sorsa met Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme. The doubts recently expressed in Finland about Sweden's neutrality were behind the meeting. At a press conference in Reykjavik, Sorsa stated that relations between Finland and Sweden are good and that Finland trusts in Sweden's neutrality.

The discussion on Sweden's neutrality began with an editorial in Suomen Sosialidemokraatti on Feb. 8, which stated that the familiar picture of the Nordic countries as a political entity had disintegrated, posed questions on the effect developments in general security policy have had on Northern Europe and brought up the idea of developing cooperation in Northern Europe in which the Soviet Union would also participate. MP Erkki Tuomioja (Social Democrats) presented similar views in his speech at the Nordic Council meeting on Feb. 17.

In connection with the question of Sweden's neutrality, reference was made to the Viggen sales, Sweden's membership in the lEA and the so-called Synnergren report, which touches on Finland's position in the event of a crisis. Both the article and the speech aroused considerable attention not only in Finland and the other Nordic countries but also in the Western European press.


The meeting of the Finnish-Indian commission for economic cooperation began in New Delhi.
The government granted a total of 70 000 Fmk to two African organizations, the OAU and the International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, for humanitarian aid activities.


The CSCE advised the four neutral countries (Finland, Sweden, Austria and Switzerland) to begin preparations for the third and last stage of the Conference.

The PLO delegation visiting Finland met Foreign Minister Ahti Karjalainen. The delegation was in Finland at the invitation of the Peace Committee of Finland, and participated in a seminar on the Middle East in Helsinki.


Finland recognized the United Arab Emirates.


In its review, the Bank of Finland noted that Finland's debts abroad at the end of 1974 totalled 11 838 million Fmk, of which the state's share was 10 percent.


A delegation representing the Central Committee of the Finnish Communist Party travelled to Moscow as guests of the CPSU.


The Central Organization of the Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) suggested that preparations for the main European trade unions' cooperation conference begin at the Geneva trade union conference.


Finland and the GDR signed an agreement on the removal of trade obstacles (a so-called Kevsos agreement) in Helsinki.

The Soviet News Agency APN and the Finnish Broadcasting Company signed an agreement on cooperation. In an interview for the Norwegian News Agency NTB, Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa expressed his surprise at the reaction of the Norwegian press to his speech in the Nordic Council. The Norwegian press commented mainly on the part of the speech concerning the Kekkonen plan.


Wärtsilä received a 350 million Fmk ship order from Venezuela.

Minister of Education Marjatta Väänänen met with the President of Senegal Leopold Senghor at the beginning of her visit to Senegal.


The Finnish government appropriated 200 000 Fmk to be used by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for humanitarian aid in Cyprus.

A commercial delegation led by Minister Jermu Laine left on a visit to Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Ecuador. In Peru, Minister Laine participated in the meeting of the UN Industrial Development Organization UNIDO. In Peru an agreement on an extensive forestry research project and a trade agreement concerning a paper and cellulose factory were signed. Finland and Mexico signed an agreement on economic, technical and industrial cooperation and a basic credit agreement for circa 30 million. With Cuba, Finland signed an agreement on economic, scientific and technical cooperation and decided to establish a cooperation commission.


Minister of Defence Carl-Olof Homén left on an official 5-day visit to England.


The government published its 9-point programme for balancing our balance of payments on current account. The measures prescribed included total price control and 30 percent import deposits. Parliament approved the import deposit law and the adjunctive change in the price control law as pressing on March 22.


Bulgarian Foreign Minister Ljuten Petrov arrived on a 4-day visit. President Urho Kekkonen left on a 2-day unofficial visit to the Soviet Union. In talks, the necessity of achieving a 15-year development programme to give Finnish-Soviet economic relations a firmer base was recognized.

The Nordic Ministerial council convened in Helsinki.

The government approved Finland's long-term bilateral development aid plans. 60 percent or 15 2.2 million Fmk of Finland's aid is bilateral. The most important partners in development are Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and Zambia.  


Neste Oy's tanker Enskeri left Sköldvik oil harbour for the southern Atlantic, where it intended to sink 690 drums of waste containing arsenic. The company had not asked for official opinion on the matter. 17. The government decided that Neste must apply for a permit to dump the drums. Parliamentary inquiries on the matter were made in Finland and Norway. The matter aroused considerable attention and was the cause of protests both in Finland and abroad. In its statement on Neste's application for a permit, the Foreign Ministry considered Finland's reputation grounds enough for denying the permit. 23. The government forbade Neste to dump the poison. 25. The tanker was ordered to return to Europe. Its load of drums was brought back to Finland and stored in Naantali. 26. Foreign Minister Ahti Karjalainen stated that all the countries which had advocated taking up the matter in an international forum had withdrawn from their standpoint and that the matter was no longer on the international agenda. 17. General-Secretary of the CPSU Leonid Brezhnev suggested that the final stage of the CSCE be held in Helsinki on June 30, 1975.


The Nordic countries ought to cooperate in large projects in order to be able to compete on the Soviet market. This kind of cooperation would also lessen political tension in northern Europe, said Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa in an interview for Dagens Nyheter.


The Nordic Foreign Ministers' 2-day spring meeting began in Helsinki.


President Kekkonen left on a 5-day official visit to Yugoslavia. The communiqué published at the end of the visit concludes that realizing the CSCE is an important step towards direct, wide and equal cooperation between all European countries as well as the lessening of differences between different groupings, thus laying the foundation for solving other international problems.

In an interview published in Belgrade on March 20, Mr. Kekkonen touched on the establishing of a Nordic nuclear-free zone, the position of small non-aligned countries, the economic inquality in the world, the importance of the CSCE and Finnish-Yugoslavian relations. On his way to Jugoslavia, President Kekkonen met Hungarian President Pal Losonczin and Foreign Minister Friggyes Pujan, on his return trip Hungarian Party leader Janos Kadar.


Finland donated a total of $ 200 000 in voluntary contributions to the UN's three funds for aid to southern Africa.


Minister of Justice Matti Louekoski departed on a 4-day official visit to Hungary.

Finland and Malta signed an agreement preventing the double taxation of income and property, in Helsinki. Reverend of the Stefanus Mission Richard Wurmbrand's talk at Oulu Cathedral was called off. Prior to this, Reverend Wurmbrand had also been denied the use of facilities in Lahti and Helsinki Diocesans were of the view that Church facilities could not be used for occasions of a political nature.


At its last meeting, the Constitutional Committee summarized its hopes for the continuation of its four and a half years' work as follows: The question of constitutional reform should be taken up for reconsideration allowing the State Council to decide at least the future preparation of partial reforms in a committee of parliamentary base.

Finland and Romania signed an agreement on cooperation in the field of tourism, in Bucharest. Finland gave Bangladesh and Tanzania 13 million Fmk special development grants, and Ethiopia and Kenya 7 million Fmk development grants.


The Government appointed a new Parliamentary Defence Committee to continue the work of the previous Defence Committee, concluded in 1971.


Hungarian Minister of Education Karolyn Polinszky arrived in Finland. His visit was connected with the Hungarian cultural weeks, which began on April 3.


The government appropriated 1.5 million Fmk to humanitarian aid in Vietnam.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa travelled to Kiiruna, Sweden, where he met with Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme. Talks covered Finnish-Swedish relations and the neutrality debate.

In honour of the 27th anniversary of the FCA Treaty, Finnish and Soviet heads of state exchanged telegrams of greeting, and FCA festivities were arranged in numerous tracts.

The government appointed Professor Keijo Korhonen Finland's expert for the UN work-group studying the question of nuclear- free zones. On April 7 Professor Korhonen was elected chairman of the group of experts, in Geneva.


Finland intends to bring up the idea of a Nordic nuclear-free zone "on all possible occasions” and attempt to get support for the idea, primarily in the Nordic countries, but also elsewhere, said President Kekkonen in an extensive television interview. He believed the idea would gain further impetus after the CSCE has brought nations closer to one another.

Minister of Education Ulf Sundqvist returned from his official visit to the United States.


Finland and Great Britain signed an agreement concerning international highway traffic, in Helsinki.


The Communiqué published in connection with a Finnish-Soviet trade-union meeting emphasized the importance of the CSCE.


Strengthening European peace and security is naturally instrumental in further reinforcing peace in the whole world, said President Kekkonen in an interview for Hungarian television.


Indonesian Foreign Minister Adam Mali arrived in Finland on a 4-day official visit.
UNESCO's new Director-General Amadou Mahtar M'Bow arrived in Finland for two days, while visiting the Nordic Countries.

The awaited results of the CSCE will give new impetus to deepening economic, scientific and technical cooperation within the ECE, Ambassador Klaus Sahlgren said at the ECE's annual meeting in Geneva.


A delegation for Frelimo arrived in Finland, while on a visit to the Nordic Countries. Vice-President Marcelino dos Santos, expressed Mozambique's desire to be included in the countries with which Finland has bilateral agreements on development cooperation.


Foreign Minister Ahti Karjalalnen departed on an official 4-day visit to Hungary, where he met Prime Minister Jeno Fock, President Pal Losonczin and Party Secretary Janos Kadar.


The government decided to grant 300 000 Fmk of the allowance reserved for liberation movements to Frelimo.

The Social Democratic Party asked President Kekkonen to be their candidate in the 1978 presidential elections, and received an affirmative reply. The same decision was taken by the other three main parties which together represent some 80 percent of the electorate.


The Council of SKDL (the Democratic League of the Finnish People) decided to propose to the 11th League Congress that President Kekkonen run as their candidate for the next six- year term. 27.4. The Centre Party's Party commission decided to make the same proposal to its Party congress. The Liberal Peoples Party and the Socialist Workers' Party also expressed their support.


The Central committee of the Communist Party decided to present its 17th Congress with supporting President Kekkonen's re-election in the 1978 elections. 25.5. The Coalition Party congress (conservatives) voted 467 to 82 in favour of supporting the re-election of Kekkonen.


During his 4-day visit, Bulgarian Minister of Foreign Trade Angel Angelov, negotiated on Finnish-Bulgarian joint projects.


Novoje Vremja criticized SKDL Chairman Ele Alenius and his book "Suomalainen vaihtoehto” (The Finnish Alternative).


A party led by Chairman of the UN Apartheid Committee, Nigerian UN Ambassador Edwin Ogbu, arrived in Finland for a 3-day visit.


Romanian Foreign Minister George Macovescu's official visit to Finland began.


In the view of the Finnish government, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty has not worked so badly, although it ought to have and might even have been able to have functioned better, Ambassador Risto Hyvärinen stated in the general discussion at the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference, in Geneva.

ECOSOC elected Finland a member of the Population Committee and the Committee for examining the International development strategy, for the period 1976—79.


The World Bank granted Finland a $ 20 million loan for the conservation of waterways.


The 30th anniversary of the ending of the Second World War was celebrated in Helsinki. At the festivities, President Kekkonen was presented with a Peace Address signed by 582 000 individuals and, inter alia, 174 national organisations. The Address was compiled into 60 books. The collecting of signatures began on Sept. 19, 1974, the 30th anniversary of the ending of the war between Finland and the Soviet Union. 12.5. A delegation led by Foreign Minister Ahti Karjalainen presented Soviet President Nikolai Podgorny with the Finnish Peace Address, in Moscow.

A Soviet delegation led hy Minister Aleksei Sholnikov attended the festivities arranged by the Peace Committee of Finland.


Finland recognized the Republic of South Vietnam ruled by the Provisional Revolutionary Government.

On the account of the 30th anniversary of the ending of the Second World War, representatives of the Finnish government, led by President Kekkonen, sent telegrams of greeting to the Soviet leadership.


"Domestic political developments in Finland will in no way be an obstacle to convening the Third Stage of the CSCE at the date desired”, stated President Kekkonen in a communiqué. The subject came up for discussion after Foreign Minister Karjalainen returned from Moscow and gave an account of his talks with President Podgorny.


Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian and Danish Ministers of Defence held a 2-day meeting in Lahti to discuss common questions connected with the UN peace-keeping forces.


Minister of Transport Pekka Tarjanne travelled to Denmark for a meeting of the Nordic Ministerial Council.


The government granted development credits to Tanzania, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, for 1975.

The security guarantees given by the nuclear-weapon countries would best be realized by establishing nuclear-free zones within a "regional framework” was the view presented by Finland in the discussion on the security guarantees of non-nuclear states at the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference.


Finland and the FRG signed an agreement on mutual assistance in customs matters.


The American missile-frigate Leahy arrived in Helsinki harbour for a naval visit.


In a survey carried out by the Committee for Psychological National Defence, 85 percent of the Finnish population considered foreign policy well taken care of. The survey asked, inter die, people's opinions on Finland's possibilities for remaining independent, the FCMA Treaty, defence policy, the amount appropriated to national defence, and the ability of our foreign-policy leadership to influence our position and prospects. Interviewees' opinions correlated with their party sympathies.


Finland was elected a member of the WHO Executive Board, for the next three-year period.


The chairmen of the Nordic Council convened in Espoo.

The government decided to include the Republic of South Vietnam and Mozambique in Finland's bilateral development cooperation programme.


No other event in modern Finnish history has received as much world-wide publicity as the Winter War, concluded Martti Julkunen, Lic. PhiL, in his doctoral thesis.


The Sorsa government asked the President to dissolve the government and order premature elections. The government placed its position in the hands of the President but did not ask to resign.


The Finnish government condemned the death penalties put into effect in Spain and appealed to the Spanish government to abandon such measures, the cause of considerable restlessness.


A border-crossing post to the Soviet Union was opened at Nuijamaa.


President Urho Kekkonen inaugurated a Swedish—Finnish cultural centre in Hanasaari, Espoo. The King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustav also participated in the inaugural ceremonies.


The chairmen of the World Peace Council awarded the Frederic Joliot-Curie golden peace medal to President Urho Kekkonen.


Spanish Crown Prince Juan Carlos and Princess Sophia arrived in Finland for an official 4-day visit.


The President of the Republic ordered premature parliamentary elections to be held in September. However, he did not dissolve the parliament. The Sorsa government handed in its resignation and continued as a caretaker government until 11.6. The government had been in office 1003 days. The president named a civil servant government led by Keijo Liinamaa on June 13. Olavi J. Mattila was named as Foreign Minister.


The International Monetary Fund (IMF) granted Finland an 835 million Fmk loan to improve liquidity and to balance of payments. Second chairman of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) Arvo Hautala demanded a thorough-going report on the matter. On June 16, the Central Committee of the Communist Party declared that the conditions of the loan offended Finland's sovereignty and demanded that the commitments made in accordance with the conditions of the loan be revoked. Finland gave Kenya a 7 million Fmk special development grant.


At the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference (5.—30.5.) Finland proposed measures with which to guarantee the interests of countries having signed or ratified the Treaty compared with those of other countries and with which to thus expand the number of signatories, reported the Finnish delegation led by Ambassador Risto Hyvärinen.

Ambassador Joel Pekuri was elected Secretary-General of the Third Stage of the CSCE to be held in Helsinki, in Geneva. The Finnish government had suggested the appointment a week earlier.


Minister of Foreign Trade Jermu Laine returned from Iran, where Finland and Iran signed a protocol on trade and economic and technical cooperation.


Valmet Oy signed an export agreement with the Soviet Union for delivering a 160 million Fmk lumber processing plant to Siberia. 18. General-Secretary of the CPSU Leonid Brezhnev was reported to have suggested to Western leaders that the Third Stage of the CSCE begin in Helsinki on July 22.


Finland and Belgium signed an agreement to prevent double taxation, in Helsinki. The GDR ratified its consular agreements with Finland and Austria. The first freight ship to carry freight directly from Lake Saimaa via the Volga and the Caspian Sea to Iran departed from Kuopio.


The Coordination committee of the CSCE reached unanimity on the fact that the Third Stage could commence in the near future in Helsinki. However, the committee did not, as was generally expected, decide the exact date.

Women must participate in the struggle for peace, international security and cooperation and for human rights and human dignity, as equals to and bearing the same responsibility as men, said chairman of the Finnish delegation Alli Lahtinen while taking the floor for Finland at the UN Womens' Year Conference in Mexico City.

The 1974 Committee on Foreign Affairs Administration handed its report in which it proposed democratizing and modernizing the administration of Foreign Affairs.


A meeting of Nordic Ministers of Finance began in Reykjavik.


In Geneva, unanimity on the date of the Third Stage of the CSCE could not be reached. The Soviet Union suggested that the top-level Conference begin on July 28. Finland stated that she would have needed to know on June 30 for the Conference to have started on July 28.


Egypt, Syria and Israel asked that Commander of the UN Middle East peace-keeping forces Lieutenant General Ensio Siilasvuo continue in his duties. It had been stated that he was returning to Finland.


Finland recognized the People's Republic of Mozambique.


Finland ratified an agreement on the conservation of the Baltic Sea. The agreement was the first general international agreement intended to prevent the pollution of the seas.


Finland announced in Geneva that she can no longer arrange the final stage of the CSCE on July 28, because there is too little time. Sweden, who had suggested the date, withdrew her proposal. Finland had, prior to this, stated that she needs four weeks for preparations.


The four neutral countries, Finland, Austria, Sweden and Switzerland, were given the job of mediating proposals on the date of the final stage.


Finland stated that she was prepared to accept Canada's proposal that the final stage of the CSCE begin on July 30. Foreign Minister Olavi J. Mattila appealed to Maltan Prime Minister Dom Mintoff that Malta approves the CSCE participants' position that the final stage begin on July 30. Malta had rejected the compromise suggested in Geneva as a result of her demands.


Preparations for the CSCE began in Helsinki.


In Geneva it was agreed that the Third Stage of the CSCE begin on July 30. The final implementation of this decision, however, depended on whether unanimity could be reached in the unsettled issues. According to Foreign Minister Mattila, the decision meant that the CSCE participants now took over the financial and political responsibility for arrangements started by Finland.


Finland established diplomatic relations with the Republic of South Vietnam and extended its bilateral aid to the whole of Vietnam.


Finland recognized the Republic of Cap Verde.

Finland signed an agreement giving Tanzania a 15 million Fmk development grant, in Dar es Salaam.


In Geneva it was officially agreed that the Third Stage of the CSCE begin in Helsinki on July 30.


The committee named to study the possibilities for realizing Nordic communal suffrage and eligibility to run in communal elections proposed that citizens of other Nordic countries who have lived in Finland for at least two years be given the same right to vote and eligibility to run in elections as Finns. The government gave Parliament a bill on the matter on December 22, 1975.


A new ship route from Kotka through the Soviet Union to the Caspian Sea and Iran was opened.
The Ministry of Social Affairs asked for approximately 50 000 Fmk in additional funds for social services for Chilean refugees. There were between 120 and 130 Chilean refugees in Finland.


The President named Finland's official CSCE delegation.


A supplementary agreement on the Finnish machines and appliances to be delivered to the Soviet nickel and copper smelting plant being built in Norilsk was signed, in Moscow. The agreement was worth 300 million Fmk, and it raised the total value of the Norilsk deal to over 1.5 billion Fmk.


President Urho Kekkonen opened the Final Stage of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, in the Finlandia Hall, by welcoming the delegations of 32 European countries, the United States and Canada to Finland.


President Kekkonen took the floor for Finland at the CSCE.


The Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was signed in Helsinki. During the Conference, President Kekkonen held unofficial talks with the leaders of the CSCE delegations of various countries. In talks with the United States' President Gerald Ford, it was agreed to continue the ASLA scholarships programme. Foreign Minister Olavi J. Mattila said that Finland is actively going to follow the implementation of the Final Act.


Finland increased her development aid to the international UN Development Programme (UNDP). UNDP Assistant Director Bert Lindström visited Finland.

Secretary-General of the CSCE, Ambassador Joel Pekuri, handed over the Final Act to Foreign Minister Mattila to be deposited in Finland's State Archives.

The Foreign Ministry appropriated I million Fmk to catastrophe aid for flood damage in Romania.


President Urho Kekkonen underscored the impact of the Conference as a re-enforcer of security and road-opener for cooperation.


Finland's permanent representative in Geneva, Ambassador Klaus A. Sahlgren was appointed the first Executive Director of the new UN Information and Research Centre on Transnational Corporations, at the level of Assistant Secretary- General.


Minister of Education Lauri Posti travelled to Moscow to participate in the ceremonies honouring the 20th anniversary of the Finnish-Soviet agreement on scientific and technical cooperation. The 20th anniversary sitting was held in Moscow on August 14, and the 21st meeting of the Committee for scientific and technical cooperation was on August 12—13.


President Urho Kekkonen left on a private fishing trip to Iceland. The signing of the CSCE Final Act and the stage of implementing the approved decisions thus entered upon are central in endeavours to relax tensions in our continent and the whole world, President Kekkonen stated in an interview for TASS.


The Netherlands' Minister of Justice A.A.M. van Agt arrived in Finland on an official 5-day visit.


Lieutenant-General Ensio Siilasvuo was appointed Chief Co-ordinator of the operations of the UN Middle East Forces (UNTSO, UNEF, UNDOF). Swedish Major General Bengt Liljestrand, Siilasvuo's successor, was appointed Commander of UNEF in Sinai.


The ad hoc governmental work-group which had carried out a "Comprehensive Study of the Question of the Nuclear Weapon Free Zones in all its aspects” submitted its report to the Geneva Disarmament Committee.

The Nordic Foreign Ministers' meeting in Oslo decided that they would begin to follow the implementation of the CSCE decisions, and that the issue will be brought up at meetings twice yearly. The meeting also decided on a common Nordic position, which in practice will mean that the Nordic countries will not support Israel's expulsion from the UN. Finland had not previously taken a stand on this issue.


Foreign Minister Olavi J. Mattila took the floor for Finland at the UN General Assembly. On his return trip, Minister Mattila visited Canada.


Commander in chief of the Swedish armed forces General Stig Synnergren arrived in Finland for an official 5-day visit.


The Government decided to support Finnish companies building abroad, with export guarantees. The guarantees were mainly intended to speed up the slowly progressing negotiations concerning contracts on the continuation of the Kostamus, Svetogorsk and Pääjärvi projects in the Soviet Union.


President Urho Kekkonen and Prime Minister Aleksei Kosygin inaugurated the first part of the Finnish built Svetogorsk paper and cellulose plant, and laid the cornerstone of the second part. In talks, the main subjects discussed were joint plans for economic cooperation and the international situation after the CSCE. Finland and the Soviet Union signed a protocol on the building of the second part of Svetogorsk. (The Svetogorsk contract was included in the Finnish-Soviet basic five-year agreement. Negotiations began in 1970, and an agreement on the building was reached in 1972. The contract was worth over 200 million Fmk. The contract for the second part is worth 640 million Fmk, and is one of the largest Finnish-Soviet joint projects. The work is scheduled to be completed by 1979. At the moment, the project employs one thousand men.)


President Kekkonen celebrated his 75th birthday.


According to a survey by M-tietokeskus, 70 per cent of Finns consider the CSCE to have been of equal value to the East and the West, and 85 per cent are of the opinion that it has been of use to our country.

Ambassador Risto Hyvärinen was appointed Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General to the Geneva Conference of the Committee on Disarmament.

United States Assistant Secretary of State Robert Ingersoll negotiated with Foreign Minister Olavi J. Mattila and Minister of Foreign Trade Arvo Rytkönen.


Finland recognized Sao Tomé and Príncipe.


The United States' Ambassador to Finland Mark Evans Austad stated that the Finnish media give out very one-sided and negative information on the United States, in a speech at the main ceremony of the American days in Kouvola. According to Ambassador Austad, not nearly all Finns understand the United States, due to the attitude of the Finnish media.


Head of the Soviet border patrol troops Colonel General V.A. Matrosoy arrived in Finland on an official 4-day visit.


Minister of Foreign Trade Arvo Rytkönen officially took the floor for Finland at the Special Session of the UN General Assembly in New York (see document section). 11. "If it really has been said that Finland is a close to total military vacuum, this indicates a basic lack of information and is, as depreciation, an insult to the Finnish soldier and defender of his country”, stated Commander in chief of the Finnish armed forces General Lauri Sutela, in an interview for the Helsinki daily, Uusi Suomi. The statement was made in reference to the words of a Norwegian NATO staff officer, which appeared in articles of similar content in various dailies on Sept. 7. A group of Finnish reporters had been acquainting themselves with Norway's defence, as guests of the Norwegian armed forces. Other Norwegian views which were made public in connection with the visit were also the cause of considerable attention.

Kenyan Minister of Finance and Planning Mwai Kibaki arrived in Finland on a 3-day visit, during which Finland and Kenya signed a basic agreement on development cooperation.


The second Constitutional Committee submitted a résumé of statements concerning constitutional reform. The committee concluded that a full majority of Parliament would not support the complete reform of the Constitution, and presented a list of partial reform measures.


The Guardian published an article entitled "Rebirth of the Cold War” which contends that the Soviet Union is considering intervention and subversion in Finland after the death of President Kekkonen. The article claimed to be based on talks held by the Foreign Ministers of the United States, England, France and the FRG. The British Foreign Office denied that the statements were in line with Foreign Secretary Callaghan's views. Foreign Minister Genscher of the FRG also corrected the information. The Finnish Foreign Ministry said that the allegations were totally unfounded and labelled them slander.


A committee was appointed to prepare a 15-year programme for Finnish-Soviet cooperation.


Finland and Romania initialled an agreement on economic, industrial and technological cooperation, in Helsinki.

President Kekkonen sent the Soviet leadership a telegram of greeting, honouring the 20th anniversary of the returning of Porkkala. (In the peace treaty of 1944, Finland rented the Porkkala area to the Soviet Union. Before the agreed upon time was up, on Sept. 19, 1955, the Soviet Union signed an agreement with Finland returning the Porkkala area to Finland.)


Parliamentary elections were held. The seats in Parliament split up 106 to 94, in favour of the non-socialist parties. Also Finns permanently living abroad (an estimated 200 000 voters) participated in the elections. There were 160 polling places in 64 countries.


President of the IPU Council G.S. Dhillon arrived in Finland for a 3-day visit.


Finland hopes that the importing of nuclear raw materials will also be made dependent on the country being a party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, academician Erkki Laurila said at the 19th General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna.


31.9.1975 The Foreign Ministry ordered Finland's Ambassador in Madrid, Heikki Hannikainen, to return to Helsinki. News of new political trials in Spain was given as the reason for this measure.

The second stage of the Pääjärvi Forestry Centre was left to V/O Exportles. (Finland built in the Soviet Union a community for 4 000, with social services and a technically top-level computer-operated wood-processing line and chipboard factory, at Pääjärvi. Work on the second stage began in 1972. Price negotiations on the building of the third and largest stage began at the beginning of November.)


Finland and the People's Republic of China signed an agreement on civilian aviation, in Peking.

A 2-day boycott of flights between Finland and Spain declared by the aeronautical union began. Anti- Spanish demonstrations were arranged in different parts of the country.


"Finland will in the future also actively contribute to relaxing international tensions and strengthening peace in Europe and the whole world”, President Kekkonen stated in his speech at the opening of Parliament.


SAK (the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions) appealed to its members to refrain from travelling to Spain. The Metal Workers' Union advised the government to freeze its relations with Spain.

OTK (a central co-operative society) decided to, for the present, stop all its imports from Spain.


Second Minister of Trade and Industry Jorma Uitto left on a 4-day visit to Albania. During the visit, Finland and Albania signed a 5-year trade agreement.


Chief of staff of the Soviet armed forces Army General V.G. Kulikov arrived in Finland on a 5-day official visit.


The decision of the Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the peace prize to Soviet nuclear physicist Andret Saharov drew attention and criticism. President Kekkonen had also been suggested for the peace prize.


The Bank of Finland declared that it was going to limit the import of foreign capital.


A meeting for the Nordic Ministers of Defence was held in Alborg, Denmark.


A delegation led by Minister of Trade and Industry Arvo Rytkönen left on a one-week visit to Saudi Arabia and Qatar. During the visit, Finland and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement on economic, industrial and technical cooperation.


President Urho Kekkonen left on a 4-day state visit to Sweden, the first since 1956. In talks with Prime Minister Olof Palme, the Nordic investment bank, labour policy and the proposal for a Nordic nuclear-free zone, among other things, were discussed. 19.10. In an interview for Dagens Nyheter, President Kekkonen said that establishing nuclear-free zones both in the Nordic area and elsewhere in the world would considerably further the relaxation of tensions. He also said that "we have no reason to believe that Sweden has given up her neutrality.”


In a communiqué given on account of the 30th anniversary of the UN, the government stated that Finland considers it very important that the UN retain its universal nature, thus making it possible for all countries to participate in the realization of common goals.


Finland celebrated the 20th anniversary of Finnish-Soviet scientific and technical co-operation. A Soviet delegation led by Vice Premier V.A. Kirillin attended the ceremonies. (The Agreement on Scientific and Technical Co-operation signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on August 16, 1955, was the first adaption of the FCA Treaty signed seven years earlier. According to the agreement, cooperation can take place in all fields of science and technology. Co-operation takes the form of exchanging information, students and experts, and arranging symposia, as well as joint development and research work. Cooperation is implemented by the joint Finnish- Soviet Commission for Scientific and Technical Co-operation, to which each government names six members. Protocols supplementing the agreement have been signed yearly. In connection with the committee, joint working-groups, of which there are 24 at the moment, have been established. Of late this cooperation has shown a tendency towards planning, which is demonstrated by the signing of long-term programmes for co-operation in science and technology in 1974 and cooperation in the natural and social sciences and the humanities in 1975.)


Finland declared that she considers Sweden's measures to limit the import of shoes, textiles and clothes against international agreements.


The second Parliamentary Defence Committee submitted its intermediate report. The Committee suggested that the Committee for Psychological National Defence be replaced by a Commission for Defence Information, from whose functions the field of foreign policy would be excluded.

Professor Keijo Korhonen, chairman of the 21-country work-group studying nuclear-free zones, submitted the results of research to the UN General Assembly's First Committee.


Finland signed a protocol with seven CMEA countries on technical, etc. aid in truck traffic, in Budapest. The protocol was the first multilateral agreement based on the recommendations of the joint commission of Finland and CMEA. Finland and three CMEA countries signed an agreement on the joint scientific-technical developing of a process for boiling cellulose, in Leningrad.


Finland sent an additional contingent of 150 to the UN Middle East peace-keeping forces at Suez. The strength of the Finnish battalion rose to 651.

Minister of Trade and Industry Arvo Rytkönen led the Finnish delegation which participated in a meeting of the EFTA Council of Ministers. Finland and the People's Republic of China initialled a maritime agreement, in Peking.


Finland and the Soviet Union signed an agreement concerning press visas. According to the agreement, Finnish and Soviet permanently accredited correspondents may be given multiple visas for one year at a time.


Finland voted against the UN General Assembly resolution declaring Zionism a form of racial discrimination, but supported giving the PLO the right to participate in the Geneva Peace Conference and all UN negotiations concerning the Middle East.


Commander in chief of the armed forces General Lauri Sutela left on an official visit to the United States.


At a special meeting in Stockholm, the Nordic Council decided to recommend the founding of a Nordic investment bank to the Nordic Ministerial Council. In Finland, the Democratic League of the Finnish People (SKDL) and the Communist Party, and in Denmark and Norway the right wing, were opposed to founding the bank.


King Karl XVI Gustav of Sweden paid an unofficial visit to Finland.


Finland and the Soviet Union signed a protocol on the exchange of goods for 1976, in Moscow. According to the protocol, Finnish-Soviet trade will increase by over 10 per cent in 1976.

Second Minister of Trade und Industry Jorma Uitto traveled to Hungary for the opening of the Finnish technical days.


Commander of the air force Major General Rauno Meria's official visit to Sweden began.


The Finnish government still considers the UN Charter a good and usable international document, Finland's representative Bengt Broms stated taking the floor in the UN General Assembly's Legal Committee.

Finland and the Soviet Union signed an agreement on scientific-technical cooperation in the field of forestry, in Helsinki


President Urho Kekkonen gave the political parties three days' time to form a "national state of emergency” majority government. He appointed former Governor Martti Miettunen to set up the new government, and dictated the government's programme as securing employment. Negotiations concerning the government had continued since October 6. On November 25, President Kekkonen had asked Keijo Liinamaa's civil servant government to continue. The new five-party government led by Prime Minister Martti Miettunen began its work on November 30. The new government's ministers' portfolios were split up among the parties as follows: Social Democratic Party 5, the Democratic League of the Finnish People 4, the Center Party 4, the Swedish People's Party 2, the Liberal People's Party I - The government also included 2 professional non-socialist ministers belonging to no party. Kalevi Sorsa, chairman of the SDP, was named Foreign Minister.

The general development in Europe is to a great extent parallel to the foreign policy practiced by Finland throughout President Kekkonen's term in office, the government concluded in its report on the CSCE to Parliament. The first part of the 27-page report examines the international developments leading to the Third Stage of the CSCE, the second part the contents of the Final Act. After the 2-day CSCE debate in Parliament which followed the report, Foreign Minister Olavi J. Mattila concluded that Parliament places value to the CSCE and its results and approves of the government's activity in the matter.

The Finnish issue of the Final Act of the CSCE was published. The total number of copies printed was 65 000.


Finland established diplomatic relations with Niger.


Finland and Canada initialled an agreement on the transporting of nuclear material, in Ottawa.


Finland established diplomatic relations with Panama.


Second Minister of Education Kalevi Kivistö travelled to the Soviet Union to participate in the anniversary celebration of Finland's independence and the main ceremony of the Finnish-Soviet friendship month.


Finland and the Soviet Union signed an agreement on the import of electricity from the Soviet Union between 1980 and 1989, in Helsinki. Conflicting views on prices had prolonged negotiations.

A meeting for the Nordic Ministers of Finance began in Oslo.


An agreement on the founding of a Nordic investment bank was signed in Copenhagen. At a meeting for the Nordic Ministers of Cooperation, it was decided to situate the bank in Helsinki. The bank will be the first joint Nordic institution based in Finland.


The last contract concerning the machinery of the second stage of the Svetogorsk project was signed in Helsinki.

The Swedish Parliament approved a bill on the suffrage and eligibility of foreigners to run in Swedish communal elections. There are 120 000 Finns in Sweden whom the law concerns.

Finland and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam signed an agreement giving Vietnam a 10 million Fmk development grant.


At a meeting of the Finnish- EEC joint committee in Brussels, Finland drew attention to its grave economic situation, and stated that it considered it unfounded to keep the EEC import ceiling on paper products unchanged in 1976.


Colonel Tauno Kuosa was appointed Assistant Chief of Staff of the UN Middle East peace-keeping troops.


The Nordic Ministerial Council decided to establish a Nordic cultural centre in Finland.


Finland's embassy in Beirut was reported to be closing its doors on account of the fighting.


Former Prime Minister of Turkey Bulent Ecevit arrived in Finland.


The government considered it important that the UN as soon as possible reimburse Finland for its expenditures in connection with the peace-keeping troops on Cyprus. Finland's outstandings from the UN totalled approximately $ 3 million. Finland was also of the view that the UN should, in the future, defray expenses within a reasonable time.


It was announced that Finland would become a full member of the OECD Atomic Energy Bureau at the turn of the year.


Finland has already begun to implement the CSCE decisions. "We have established connections with the governments of many other participants to discuss common efforts to fulfil the Helsinki Declaration", President Urho Kekkonen said in an interview for lzvestija.   The Tanzanian Institute of Development Management, the financing of which Finland partook in with 5,4 million Fmk, was completed.