Dokumentarkiv och kronologi för Finlands utrikespolitik

År 1983 i Finlands utrikespolitik


President Mauno Koivisto said in his New Year's Speech that there has been no change for the better in the international political situation, and that nuclear armament continues on its course. Nor had the Madrid CSCE follow-up obtained the desired results in drafting the final document. On the other hand, the President believed that the great powers wilt endeavour to turn the trend into a more positive direction in the Geneva talks. Although the Nordic area has been the object of lively great power and military political interest, the situation here has remained stable. According to President Koivisto, the non-nuclear states of the areas have greatly contributed to this favourable state of affairs, and Finland for her part will continue making efforts towards the implementation of the Nordic nuclear-weapon-tree zone (NWFZ) in order to keep the situation stable. On the basis of her own clearly defined international status Finland will endeavour to promote peaceful solutions in wider international contexts. This is why Finland made great effort to contribute to the favourable conclusion of the Madrid CSCE follow-up conference.

ln an interview with the periodical Maailma ja me (1/83) Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa emphasizes the importance of prolonging the Fenno-Soviet FCMA Treaty without amendments, because the development of the neighbourly relations between our countries has succeeded on the basis of the Treaty, despite increased international tensions. Discussions on the prolongation could start in the near future. Prime Minister Sorsa expressed his hope that the Soviet Union and the United States make rapid progress in the Geneva talks so that a new armament spiral in Europe could be prevented.


Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck gave a talk at the Hämeenlinna Paasikivi Society on the impact of great power relations on the activity of the UN. According to him, the General Assembly reflects directly the state of the great power relations and any confrontations are increasingly reflected in the issues discussed in the UN. It would be indispensable to attain some kind of harmony in these relations for disarmament, regional conflicts and global questions to be solved. Minister Stenbäck is of the opinion that the status of the UN should be strengthened so that it could be used as a forum tor active cooperation more than before.


In an interview with Helsingin Sanomat Gen. Bernard W. Rogers, Commander-in-Chief of the NATO Forces in Europe, expressed his doubts about the preparedness of the Finns to defend their country. He said that the Finns might let Soviet troops violate their territorial integrity both on land and in the air, if these troops attacked NATO objects in Norway. Sen. Rogers considered the implementation of a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone impossible as long as disarmament cannot be agreed on.

Gen. Lauri Sutela, Commander of the Finnish Defence Forces, gave a statement on Gen. Rogers' view of the willingness of the Finns to defend their country. Gen. Sutela said that the statement reflects Gen. Rogers' private opinions and that it contains certain elements of Finlandization claims. According to Can. Sutela Finland will defend herself against any aggressor, but speculations about the aggressor being the Soviet Union are based on dated analyses of the situation, and are false. Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck expressed his astonishment that Gen. Rogers sees it relevant to offer speculations which are obviously based on erroneous information about the Finnish neutrality and defence policies.

Norwegian Minister of Defence Anders Sjaastad said that Norway is convinced that Finland is capable of repelling any aggression and repudiated Can. Rogers' doubts about Finnish neutrality.

An agreement on opening four new official border crossing points between Finland and Norway was approved by exchange of notes. According to the agreement, people living in the border regions can be granted permission to cross the border also elsewhere.


The US State Department published a statement saying that the views expressed by Gen. Rogers are his personal opinions. The U.S. strongly supports the Finnish policy of neutrality.


Pravda published an article in which it said that Gen. B.W. Rogers' views of the Soviet foreign policy as regards the Nordic countries, especially Finland, are distorted. According to Pravda, the statement aimed at creating mistrust between Finland and the Soviet Union, although the Finnish officials have stated that Finland has nothing to fear from the Soviet Union.


Minister of Defence Juhani Saukkonen gave his view of the appointment of a fourth parliamentary defence committee suggested by Prime Minister Sorsa. Minister Saukkonen said that if a committee is deemed necessary, it could make a suggestion for defence spending in 1987—91. The committee should focus their efforts on issues which have not been extensively discussed and to cover a longer period than five years. The function of our Defence Forces is to prevent all military actions directed at Finland. If our own capability is insufficient, the FCMA Treaty offers different ways of strengthening our capability. In view of this makes speculations about our security political position and behaviour is redundant.


Dr Esko Antola wrote in the daily Kansan Uutiset that the trip made by Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck to South America, especially his visit to Brazil, brought to light a new direction in our development cooperation policy which stresses trade and ‘normal relations' more than before. Antola said that the views Foreign Minister Stenbäck expressed on the parallel activities of Finland and Brazil for peace and disarmament do not hold water and referred to Brazilian activity with regard to e.g. nuclear arms policy, her relations with South Africa. When answering to the foreign affairs committee of the Parliament Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck considered his speeches in Brazil and Peru still justified and regarded Brazil as an important state, especially economically for Finland.


Minister Saukkonen said that it is imperative that the appropriations suggested by the Third Parliamentary Defence Committee be guaranteed as of 1984. According to him, this is a question of satisfying one of the basic social needs.


Gen. Lauri Sutela said in his speech at the Opening Ceremony of the 87th National Defence Course that Finland should be able to show in already peacetime that military exploitation of our territory would not be feasible because of the time and sacrifices it demands. This objective is also supported by the FCMA Treaty in which the main responsibility for guaranteeing territorial integrity lies with Finland.


The Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, Ferenc Havasi, and a member of the Political Commission visited Finland at the invitation of the Finnish SDP Chairman Kalevi Sorsa took part in the discussions.


Dr Jan-Magnus Jansson, editor-in-chief of the daily Hufvudstadsbladet, discussed the president's strong position in Finland in a seminar organized by the Institute of Comparative Analysis of Political Systems (director: Maurice Duverg e r). The seminar's theme was ‘semi-presidential' regimes, and the regimes of France, Finland and Portugal were compared in this respect. According to Dr Jansson, the president of Finland does not have exceptionally great powers, although they have special significance in foreign policy leadership, in appointing the Cabinet and dissolving Parliament. It is only after the Second World War that the leadership of foreign policy has become a central part of the president's function.

At a lunch meeting with political journalists President Koivisto discussed the talk about Finlandization, which occasionally crops up in political debates abroad. In such connections Finland's position is used for purposes which have nothing to do with our country. Such talk reveals lack of knowledge about Finland and our policy of friendly relations with our neighbouring countries. For this reason it is to no avail to try to correct everyone; our neighbours have trust in the Finnish line.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa visited Paris, to attend a meeting of European Social Democrat prime ministers and the Disarmament Council of the Socialist International. In his address at the prime minister meeting he emphasized the central role of the SDPs in many European countries and the ensuing responsibility and these parties' endeavours to stimulate the world economy. At the SI Disarmament Council he said that the Geneva talks should obtain results before summer to prevent a new armament spiral. He also participated in a seminar organized by Professor Duverger. He gave a talk on the status of the prime minister in Finland and the power- political relations between the prime minister, president and parliament against the background of the 1919 constitution and the regime which has developed during independence. According to the constitution, the status of the prime minister is not very strong but it has grown stronger with the development of parliamentarianism and with social changes. Mr Sorsa met President François Mitterrand and Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy, with whom he discussed Fenno-French questions and relations in the European Community.


A Fenno-Nicaraguan protocol on development cooperation for 1983-85 was signed in Managua. Finland has appropriated 35 million FIM for the period in question.


President Koivisto gave an interview to the Norwegian daily Nordlys and news agency Arbeidners Presskontor. According to the President, the present nuclear-weapon- free status of the Nordic area is based on each country's unilateral decision and is in effect only in peacetime as regards the Nordic NATO countries Finland has endeavoured to create a NWFZ in order to eliminate such uncertainty factors, President Koivisto said that an agreement on the zone is primarily an inter-Nordic matter, even if it may require nuclear states endorsement.


A delegation of the Finnish People's Democratic League Parliamentary Group visited Moscow, heeded by the Group Chairmen Veikko Saarto. They discussed current questions in international economics end Soviet aspirations to increase their Western trade.


The Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian end Icelandic Centre Parties held their annual joint convention in Helsinki. The Swedish delegation was headed by Thorbjörn Fälldin and the Norwegian one by Johan J. Jacobsen. According to the final document regional arrangements are one way to preclude the nuclear threat. It is important to promote cooperation between the Nordic countries despite economic depression. The Centre Parties agreed that quick, concrete measures are important in the promotion of co-Nordic television cooperation.


Finland gave its response to the Swedish Government on the Swedish proposal of a nuclear-weapon- free corridor between the military alliances in Central Europe. In its response the Finnish Government expresses its hope that the initiative will lead to concrete and verifiable results although the implementation of the proposal lies in the first place with the countries either located in the area or otherwise responsible for the security of the area. The response underlines the importance of the Geneva talks for the goals of the Swedish proposal.


In a survey, 84 0/0 of Finns estimated that the CMA Treaty has a positive influence on Finland's international status (a year earlier the figure was 81 per cent). A positive attitude towards the FCMA treaty has grown among the supporters of all the four major parties. 93 % of those who answered considered the Finnish foreign policy as well managed.

Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck was handed a petition opposing the establishment of a PLO office in Helsinki. The petition was signed by some 71000 person. The delegation expressed their concern about the possibility of inviting PLO Leader Yasser Arafat to Finland. This could lead to the establishment of a PLO office and to a "recognition of certain degree” of the PLO. One of the signers of the petition was Minister of Culture Arvo Salo.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa attended the European Management Forum in Davos Switzerland. The participants were political and economic authorities from seven Western countries. Prime Minister Sorsa repeated the initiative for a strategy of a balanced economic growth put forward by Finland in OECD in November 1982. According to it, a closer cooperation in monetary and currency policy is essential. Economic aid given to the developing countries would also benefit the donators. According to Mr Sorsa, this activity should be coordinated by augmenting the resources of the IMF and World Bank.


Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck gave a report on the Finnish development cooperation on the occasion of the beginning of the new three-year period of the Commission on economic relations with the developing countries (TALKE). According to him, the view presented by the Under Secretary of State Wilhelm Breitenstein that the interests of the Finnish export industry are involved in the development aid is not correct. The forms of development aid are determined by the needs of the cooperation partner and not by Finland's trade political interests, Minister Stenbäck said.


The Paasikivi Society organized a discussion on "Nuclear War and Finland”. Mr Pertti Joenniemi, a special researcher at the Tampere Peace Research Institute spoke on "Nuclear War in the Finnish Defence Doctrine”, and Mr Kauko Sipponen, Governor of the Province of Central Finland and Chairman of the Parliamentary Committee for Civil Defence, on "Nuclear War and the Civil Defence”. According to Joenniemi, General Lauri Sutela, Commanding General of the National Defence Forces, had expressed new and different opinions on how to avoid a possible nuclear attack. Sutela said that a well-equipped army will prevent a military exploitation of our country and a possibility of Finland becoming the target of nuclear weapons. According to Joenniemi this approach would reduce the application of other alternatives, which is possible now in the approach taken by the Parliamentary Defence Committee (Paasikivi-Seuran monistesarja <Paasikivi Society mimeographs> n:o 35).


A Soviet Communist Party (CPSU) delegation visited Finland in accordance with the cooperation programme made between CPSU and the Finnish Communist Party. The Soviet delegation was headed by KG. Vaino, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Estonian CP.


Parliament passed a new statute on aliens to improve the legal rights of foreigners in Finland. Its major amendment was the possibility given to foreigners to appeal against legal decisions and rules. It also makes it easier to renew a work permit.

In an interview with the periodical Maailma ja Me (the world and we) the Centre Party Chairman Paavo Väyrynen said that the FCMA Treaty will remain the basic document of the Fenno-Soviet relations and that it will be prolonged for a long time in the near future. Mr. Väyrynen said that the trust between Finland and the Soviet Union has not been affected by the changes in the highest leadership of both countries.


The Commission on the Protection of the Baltic convened in Helsinki.


Gen. Rogers corrected the statement he gave at the beginning of January. He said that, on the basis of information he has received, there is no doubt about the Finns defending their country no matter who the aggressor Gen. Rogers admitted that his former statement had based on ignorance of the situation.


Finland joined the international general agreement on the regulation of whaling.


In Helsinki 160 different civic organizations participated in a disarmament parliament dealing with initiatives towards promoting peace and disarmament made by these organizations. The initiatives were later submitted to the President, Council of State and Parliament.


Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck said in a speech he gave at the 87th Defence Course that disarmament policy is part of foreign policy and that Finland, despite her limited possibilities, is in a position to obtain results in disarmament questions. According to Minister Stenbäck the Geneva talks on middle-range missiles are of essential to disarmament.


In a talk he gave at a cooperation seminar Minister Stenbäck repudiated alt claims that there are differences of opinion about the main lines of our development cooperation among high officials of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. According to Minister Stenbäck this policy has been conducted on the lines proposed by political decision makers. He suggested that the TALKE Commission find out if the programme of principles in cooperation development of 1974 should be revised.


An opinion poll on Finnish views of security policy was published. The poll had been made for MTS (the planning committee for defence information). 15 % of the adult population would accept unilateral disarmament in Finland. 47 % thought it possible to reduce arms in Finland if all countries did so.21 % said that disarmament was not to be allowed under any circumstances.


President and Mrs. Mauno Koivisto spent their holiday on the Canary Islands.


In a Pugwash meeting in Helsinki, authorities on international law and disarmament discussed possibilities of completing and amending international statutes on armament, war and armed conflicts. There was general agreement that legislation lags behind the rapid development of armament and armed forces. The greatest lacks of international law are to be found in the legislation on space militarization.


The cooperation committee of the Nordic Social Democrat Parties and trade unions (SAMAK) convened in Copenhagen. Kalevi Sorsa was elected chairman. The meeting dealt with agricultural problems and published a seven-point security political programme for the limitation of arms race.


A Siberia Seminar organized by the Finland-Soviet Union Society was held in Espoo. Its themes were the use of natural gas in Finland and prospects of project exports in the construction of far-away objects in Siberia.


Ambassador Esko Rajakoski delivered the Finnish address in the general discussion of the Geneva Disarmament Committee. He said that the Finnish government has a relatively optimistic view of the possibilities for negotiating a ban on chemical weapons. He also gave a report on the present situation in the project for verification of a chemical weapons ban, under way in Finland.


Mr Aarne Saarinen, former chairman of Finnish Communist Party (SKP), gave a talk on the primary objects of the Finnish defence policy. He said that, as a NATO member, Norway has bound herself to U.S. military policy and submitted herself to being a stepping stone in a possible NATO attack on the Soviet Union. This has not been sufficiently taken into account in the current Finnish defence policy, as it should, because such an attack could not take place without violating Finnish territorial integrity. Finland should officially propose a border peace agreement, and, if Norway still refuses, Finland should take action towards fortifying the defence of Northern Lapland.


A FCP delegation visited Hungary at the invitation of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' party. Chairman Jouko Kajanoja met the First Secretary of the HSWP Central Committee, Janos Kadar.


Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck commented Mr Saarinen's demand that Finland should propose a border peace agreement to Norway, saying that the previous proposal is still in force and there is no need for a new one. The issue has occasionally bean discussed with Norwegian officials, and Finland is prepared to discuss it, if Norwegians are willing, the Foreign Minister said.

Foreign Minister Stenbäck said that there is political consensus on raising the amount of the Finnish cooperation aid to 0.7 per cent of GNP by 1988. According to Minister Stenbäck, this will be tested in budget discussions. The percentage should be raised to 0.42 in the 1984 budget.


Prime Minister Káre Willoch rejected Mr Saarinen's claims that Norway is a stepping stone for a NATO attack on the Soviet Union. According to the Norwegian Prime Minister it is politically impossible that the Norwegian territory be used as a starting point in an attack on any country and that the proposal for a border peace agreement is thus unnecessary.


The 31st Session of the Nordic Council was held in Oslo. The chairman of the Finnish delegation, Mrs Elsi Hetemäki-Olander said in her address at the general session that on no grounds can security policy questions be discussed by the Council. On the other hand, a separate Nordic parliamentary seminar could be convened to discuss security policy and a Nordic nuclear- weapon-free zone (NWFZ). All the Nordic left-wing parties submitted for consideration by the session an appeal to that effect. Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa suggested that the Council find out if it is possible to grant immigrants a inter-Nordic franchise in State elections independently of citizenship. The economic programme passed by the session proposes that the Nordic countries enter into cooperation with OECD, GATT and in the International Monetary Fund. The session passed a motion on referring to the Nordic Council of Ministers the task of drafting the programme for the development of inter-Nordic economy and employment. As regards the Nordic communication satellite Tele-X, the financing of the project was debated, although in principle, Finland, Sweden and Norway support the undertaking.


Aarne Saarinen reiterated his statement that Norway could be used as a starting point in an attack on the Soviet Union and that Finland would thus end up as Norway's enemy, whatever Prime Minister Wiltoch says.

According to the Evening paper Iltalehti, Professor Raimo Väyrynen had said in a Pugwash meeting that the Paris Peace Treaty, the FCMA Treaty and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons do not in theory or juridically prohibit the introduction into Finland of nuclear weapons owned by another state, if the Finnish Government endorses it. He had also said that this could be used in persuading Norway to accept the idea of a Nordic nuclear-weapon- free zone. According to the article Professor Väyrynen did not consider this possibility desirable, nor did he think this to be in the interests of the Soviet Union in a situation of an international crisis.


The Chairmen of the Finnish People's Democratic League, Kalevi Kivistö, suggested that the Finnish party leaders send a joint invitation to PLO leader Yasser Arafat to visit Finland. This would be the most prestigious group possible since no state organ is prepared to invite him. The PLO leader could visit Finland in the connection of his visit to the other Nordic countries.

According to Under-Secretary of State Klaus Törnudd, the Paris Treaty, the FCMA Treaty and the Non-proliferation Treaty prohibit Finland from manufacturing or acquiring nuclear weapons. The treaties do not contain a clause prohibiting the stationing of other countries' nuclear weapons. Thus the statement made by Professor Väyrynen contains nothing new.


Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck stated that the Finnish stand with regard to the introduction of nuclear weapons onto Finnish territory is clear and unchanged. In the Peace Treaty our country has contracted not to manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons, and on the basis of our policy of neutrality we refuse to accept such weapons on behalf of other states. According to the Foreign Minister, this kind of threatening pictures directed towards other countries, depicted by the Press, are to be discarded.


Jorma Hentilä, Secretary General of the Finnish People's Democratic League, commented on Mr Saarinen's demand for the fortification of the Finnish-Norwegian border saying that from the West, Finland is threatened by a nuclear attack, not by a conventional one. Such a threat cannot be encountered by conventional defence arrangements in border areas. We must reduce the threat of a nuclear war and detach Finland from great power nuclear strategies, which entails that the primary goal should be to increase political activity instead of resorting to military solutions, Mr Hentilä said.


According to Prof. Raimo Väyrynen, those taking part in the discussion on possible introduction of nuclear weapons into Finland have confused the political and the juridical point of view.


Minister of Defence Juhani Saukkonen gave a talk at the Opening Ceremony of the 88th Defence Course. According to him, the fortification of the Norwegian border is not necessary. Some 30 % of our Army is deployed in the Lapland Military Area end this strength is comparable to those deployed in the North of Sweden or in the North of Norway.


The Fenno-Polish Joint Commission convened in Helsinki to find means of balancing the Fenno-Polish trade, which is in favour of Finland. The Polish officials considered it important to diversify and develop the trade despite the economic difficulties in Poland.


President Koivisto told Norwegian journalists that the initiative for a border peace agreement made by President Kekkonen in 1965 will not be discussed during his visit to Norway because the Norwegian Government views the proposal with reservations. This does not, however, mean that Finland has given up the idea.

A Finland-Soviet Union Society delegation attended the 25th anniversary meeting of the Soviet Union- Finland Society in Moscow.


The FCP political commission presented a defence political position. According to it, the Finnish defence policy should concentrate more strongly than before on the North of Finland because the greatest danger for the territorial integrity comes from the Norwegian border.


Dr Jevgeni Tsuzov visited Finland as a guest of the Finnish Physicians against Nuclear Weapons. Dr Tsuzov is Second Vice Chairman of the International Physicians against Nuclear Weapons and Deputy Minister of Health of the Soviet Union.


President Koivisto addressed Parliament on the closing of the 1982 session. He said that Finland will pursue her foreign policy and good neighbourly relations without resorting to such threatening pictures as have been painted in the Press. Political scientists' estimates and analyses of exceptional phenomena in international politics and of different countries' behaviour in various political situations have no great relevance in the search for different models. At their worst, they have the value of fortune tellers' predictions; research can, however, be used as an indicator in estimating future development. The President said that the initiatives made by Finland towards North European security are still in force.


Prof. Raimo Väyrynen stated that the interpretation he gave on the possibility of introducing nuclear weapons into Finland has been offered earlier. Under-Secretary of State Keijo Korhonen presented the same view in January 1981, but it did not give rise to any debate then.

Finland and Sweden signed an agreement giving the directions for material, technology and equipment exportation in the field of nuclear energy.


President Koivisto paid an official visit to Norway. He met King Olav and Prime Minister Kåre Willoch. After his discussions with Prime Minister President Koivisto said that the border peace agreement seems difficult to realize in the original form, but Finland and Norway could consider making unambiguous and parallel declarations assuring the permanent pacification of the Northern border areas.


Göran von Bonsdorff participated in a disarmament seminar organized by the Peace Union and the Peace Committee of Finland and the Soviet Peace Committee in Moscow.


Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck commented the statement made by the Soviet General Chervov, according to whom it would be possible to consider including the Baltic in a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone. This would involve the removal of six Soviet nuclear-powered submarines from the Baltic. According to Minister Stenbäck the statement is an interesting contribution to the discussion on the zone.


Finland and Egypt signed a cultural agreement in Cairo. It is a frame agreement on exchange of experts.


Mr V.F. Petrovsky, Head of the Department of International Organizations of the Soviet Foreign Ministry, stated at a Paasikivi Society meeting that the implementation of a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFS) could mean that the northern part of Europe would be left outside possible nuclear attacks. He also said that the Soviet Union is prepared to accept restricted solutions if comprehensive solutions cannot be obtained as yet.


According to Prime Minister Sorsa, the possibility of Finland and Norway giving parallel declarations on the permanent peace on the Northern border area have been studied for some time, If Norway is not prepared to make agreement arrangements, parallel unilateral declarations could serve the same purpose, according to the Prime Minister.


The neutral and non-aligned CSCE states (N+N-States) proposed Finland as the host country of a meeting in 1985, when it will be 10 years since the Helsinki Act. Austria was proposed as the host of the next follow-up meeting and Stockholm as the host town of the disarmament conference.


Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck said that the ideas presented by President Koivisto on replacing a border peace agreement by parallel political declarations does not mean that Finland had transferred the initiative to Norway. Finland will not make an official initiative on the matter. The issue had been discussed un-officially during President Koivisto's visit to Norway.

The N+N-States proposed in the Madrid follow-up meeting that the preparatory meeting for the Stockholm conference be held in Helsinki in October, to draw up the agenda and other rules of procedure to be followed at the disarmament conference.


The N+N-States submitted to the Madrid meeting a new draft document, which was expected to lead to results by the end of April. The draft was drawn up by taking account ot both the East's and the West's views of the central questions in disarmament and military security as well as in human rights.


The Ministry for Foreign Affairs appropriated 60 million FIM to development aid projects in Tanzania, Kenya, Zambia and Sri Lanka. Some 35 million will be spent in the implementation of Tanzanian forest projects. An additional 35 million was put at the disposal of the World Foodstuff Program me.


Pravda published an article on the coming Finnish parliamentary elections. According to the article, the most important issues are domestic. In the presidential elections, which are more relevant to foreign policy, the Finns gave their support to the continuation of the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line.


In the parliamentary elections there were 3.9 million registered voters. The voting rate was 75.7 %. The seats were distributed as follows: non-socialist parties 114 seats (57.8 %), socialist parties 84 seats (40.7 %) and others 2 (1.5 °k. Seats won by individual parties were as follows: SDP 57 (26.7%) , the National Coalition Party (NCP) 44 (22.1 %), the Centre Party (CP) 38 (17.6%), the Finnish People's Democratic League (FPDL) 27 (14.0%) , the Rural Party (RP) 17 (9.7 %), the Swedish People's Party of Finland (SPP) 11 (4.9 %), the Christian League of Finland (CLF) 3 (3.0%), an independent coalition "the Greens” 2 (1.5 %) and the Constitutional Party (CCP) 1 (0.4 %). The Rural Party was the big winner: from 7 to 17. The SDP also won new seats. "The Greens” are newcomers in Parliamentary circles. The greatest loser was the FPDL.


A representative of the Federation of Finnish Industry participated in a trip to Japan made by a delegation of the EFTA countries. The delegation visited the Japanese State Department and the Department of Foreign Trade and Industry to discuss means of balancing trade and the significance of free world trade.


All the Nordic Countries signed an agreement concerning income and property taxes in the five Nordic countries to prevent double taxation.


An International symposium "The Child and War” was organized by the Peace Union of Finland, the Geneva International Peace Research Institute (GIPRI) and the International Peace Bureau. Half of the participants came from abroad. Mr Halfdan Mahler, Director General of the WHO, sent his greeting to the Symposium.


The Paasikivi Society arranged a discussion, in which Professor Osmo Apunen gave a report on ”The FCMA Treaty and Security in the Nordic region” and Pauli Järvenpää, on "The North Cap Security Questions”. Professor Apunen's report is published on page 27.


The Soviet Ambassador to Finland, V.M. Sobolev, gave an interview to the Finnish daily Suomenmaa on the occasion of the 35th anniversary of the FCMA Treaty. He said that the Treaty has guaranteed the favourable and stable long-term development of Fenno-Soviet relations. As regards international affairs, the Treaty has contributed to the stable and peaceful situation prevailing the North of Europe independently of the international fluctuations. It has served as an example of the way in which two countries with different social systems can enter into flexible cooperation.


SDP Chairman Kalevi Sorsa participated in the l6th Conference of the Socialist International in Albufeire, Portugal and a meeting of the SI Office before that. The SI Disarmament Council called specially upon the United States and the Soviet Union to endeavour to reach concrete results in the disarmament negotiations. SI passed resolutions on the Near East, the situation in Latin America and East Timor. The Conference elected Pentti Väänänen Secretary General.


A Finnish governmental delegation participated in the 35th anniversary celebrations of the FCMA Treaty. The delegation was led by Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck, who met Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. Their discussions dealt with the proposal for a Nordic NWFZ and the present state of the Madrid CSCE follow-up.


A Soviet delegation headed by Grigori Romanov, member of the Highest Soviet participated in the celebration of the 35lh anniversary of the FCMA Treaty in Helsinki. President Koivisto also participated in the celebrations. In a telegraph he sent to the Soviet leaders, he emphasized the significance of the Treaty in the present international situation full of tensions. The Official Representative of the Finnish Government was Minister of Finance Jermu Laine. The Soviet delegation also met representatives of the Finnish Communist Party.


President Koivisto gave an interview to the Finnish Broadcasting Corporations programme "Näin naapurissa” (Life in the Neighbouring Country), in which he discussed the significance of the FCMA Treaty now and during the past 35 years. According to the President, the Treaty as a whole is successful and significant despite the fact that parts of it have been discussed on various occasions lately. At present, the only pertinent question to ask is when and for how long it will be prolonged. The FCMA Treaty requires that Finland has a defence capacity, which, however, is smaller than the one we would have to achieve without the Treaty. Finnish security can be guaranteed by other means than increasing military preparedness, President Koivisto said.

According to a survey of Soviet and East European studies in Finland, such studies are few, which causes dependency on studies made in the West, which do not always fulfil the Finnish requirements of impartiality and objectivity. Consequently, Finnish research in this field should be supported. This could best be done within the existing academic institutions.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs appropriated 12.2 million FIM to bilateral development cooperation. The recipient countries of this donation are Burma, Sri Lanka and two different projects in Zambia.


According to a report published by the Development Aid Section of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, some 60 % of the aid given by Finland returns to Finland: 65 % in bilateral and 51 % in multilateral development aid.


At the opening of Parliament, Erkki Pystynen (NCP) was elected Speaker, Veikko Vennamo Chairman of the Standing Committee, Erkki Liikanen Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee and Mauri Miettinen Chairman of the Defence Committee.


The Parliamentary Civil Defence Committee submitted its report to Minister of Interior Matti Ahde. According to the report, the aim should be to be able to protect the whole population both from the dangers of conventional war and from radioactive fall-out. The latter presupposes sheltering also during a war between other states, which could cause a fall-out in our country. According to the Committee, a significant part of the population has no structural shelter, particularly in areas of sparse habitation. The plan presented two cases, in which people would have to stay in a shelter for two or three days. The committee did not discuss cases of long-time catastrophes. The implementation of the proposed plan would raise the costs of population protection from 200 to 300 million marks.


Mrs Hilkka Pietilä, Secretary General of the Finnish UN Association attended an UNESCO conference in Paris. The Conference was a follow- up on the implementation of the recommendation tor internationalism in education made in 1974.


The SDP Party Secretary Mr.Erkki Liikanen met PLO Leader Yasser Arafat in Stockholm.


One of the founding members of the American Freeze Movement, Mr. Randall Forsberg, visited Finland.


President Koivisto, together with five other political leaders from neutral and non-aligned countries, appealed 10 all the CSCE countries for a successful conclusion of the Madrid follow-up meeting. This is indispensable in securing of the positive role of the CSCE for Europe also in the future. The draft for the final document proposed by the neutral and non-aligned (N+N) countries is a concrete proposal, which could be used in endeavouring to conclude this stage of the CSCE.

Paavo Väyrynen, Chairman of the Centre Party, participated in a disarmament meeting organized by the Norwegian Venstre in Oslo. The meeting dealt with the situation in Europe. He concentrated in his speech on the deadlock in the disarmament talks, and he considered even a temporary solution better than a total failure. All possible means of advancing the negotiations should be considered even using a third party as a mediator.

Foreign Minister Pär Stenbäck considered the discussion on the exact date of the signing of the prolongation of the FCMA Treaty as premature, even though Finland supports prolonging the Treaty without amendments.


President Mauno Koivisto, accompanied by Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck among others, paid an official visit to Denmark. President Koivisto met Queen Margareta, Prime Minister Poul Schluter and Foreign Minister Uffe Ellemann-Jensen. In his discussions with them President Koivisto explained the CSCE appeal made by him on April 18. According to him, the neutral and non-aligned countries have made all effort possible for speeding up the CSCE. Further development is up to the great powers and the alliances. The discussions also dealt with disarmament questions and the Denmark's role in the Nordic cooperation.


The Soviet Ambassador Vladimir Sobolev gave a talk at a Finland-Soviet Union Society in Mikkeli. He said that the regular communication between the leaders of the countries promote new views of the development of Fenno-Soviet cooperation. According to the Ambassador, the FCMA Treaty has preserved its relevance and has guaranteed good Fenno-Soviet relations regardless of fluctuations in the international situation.

Minister of Defence Saukkonen emphasized the importance of implementing the proposals made by the Third Parliamentary Defence Committee. He spoke at the 20th anniversary celebrations of Maanpuolustajat ry (Defenders' Association) in Helsinki. According to Minister Saukkonen, Foreign policy is essential when implementing security policy objects, but a country situated between two military alliances cannot neglect its defence.


The 6th session of the UN Habitat Commission was held in Espoo. The Session passed a resolution on according the right to city slum inhabitants to have the occupancy of housing sites and prepared the Year of the Homeless — 1987. The Finnish delegation was headed by Minister of Interior Matti Ahde. Mr Arno Hannus was elected chairman of the Commission for the following year.


The spring meeting of the IPU was held in Helsinki. In the opening ceremony President Mauno Koivisto appealed to the European and North American governments to work for a successful conclusion of the CSCE follow-up. Also Foreign Minister Par Stenbäck addressed the meeting Dr Johannes Virolainen, the former Speaker of the Finnish Parliament was obliged to renounce the IPU Presidency after he had lost his seat in the parliamentary elections.


The Peace Union of Finland gave a statement for Committee on the Foreign Affairs Administration of 1983 urging that the National Disarmament Board (ARNEK) be made permanent.


 In the spring meeting of the Newspaper Union in Helsinki the editor-in-chief of the Swedish Aftonbladet and a foreign editor of the New York Times claimed that Finnish journalists were not critical enough in their reporting during the last years of President Kekkonen's era. The President's retirement and the news about the state of his health came as a surprise to Finns although the indications had been there for some time.

A study made by the Tampere Peace Research Institute on the attitudes in the Finnish media towards the events in the 2nd Special Session on Disarmament of the UN General Assembly reveals that the reporting has been quite uniform in the media. The study covered eight dailies and part of the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation's radio and television news. Attitudes towards disarmament were positive and the reporting concentrated mainly on the activity of Finland and the two great powers. The attitude towards the peace movement was also positive although it was argued that the responsibility for decisions lies with the international disarmament community.


The Student representative Council of the University of Turku published a statement on conscientious objectors. According to it, the greater the number of those who want to do non-combatant military service becomes, the greater is the share of the conscientious objectors' applications that are rejected. According to the statement, the tightening line adopted by the boards of examiners is hardly consistent with one's idea of law and justice.


The Cabinet's Foreign Affairs Committee received a report from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs on submarine incidents in Swedish territorial waters and on the security political situation in the Nordic area. In its statement the Cabinet considered it important that the Nordic security political situation remain stable and outside great power tensions despite increased military interest in the area. According to the statement, vessels carrying nuclear warheads will be denied access to Finnish ports, and new regulations to be applied in case of violations of Finnish territorial waters are being prepared by the Ministry of Defence.


President Mauno Koivisto appointed the new post-election cabinet, with Kalevi Sorsa (SDP) as Prime Minister. This is his fourth Cabinet. Paavo Väyrynen, Chairman of the Centre Party, was appointed Foreign Minister, Seppo Lindblom (SDP) Minister of Trade and Commerce, Jermu Laine (SDP) Minister of Foreign Trade and Veikko Pihlajamäki (CP) Minister of Defence.


A political statement published by the FPDL league council takes a positive view of the opening of a PLO information office in Helsinki but a negative view of Finland's confused manner of behaving in international organizations, e.g. by voting blank in the UN in the motion for a ban on first- use of nuclear arms. The Finnish development cooperation takes more into account the needs of exporting companies than those of the developing countries. The SKDL Council appeals to the Finnish Government to condemn the US intervention in Central America.


The Second END Convention was held in West Berlin. The Finnish participants were representatives of the Peace Union of Finland, the Committee of the Hundred and the Finnish UN Association.


A Paasikivi Society delegation headed by Chairman Jan-Magnus Jansson and Urpo Levo, Chairman of the Delegation of the Paasikivi Societies visited Moscow. The delegation met Deputy Foreign Minister V.N. Maltsev and N.G. Ferafonov, Head of the Scandinavian Section of the Soviet Foreign Ministry.


President Mauno Koivisto dismissed Dr Ahti Karjalainen from his position as Governor of the Bank of Finland in the name of public interest.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa participated in a meeting of Social Democrat prime ministers in Paris. The meeting dealt with international economic problems. The final document is an attempt at finding means of promoting economic growth, full employment and balanced world economy.


Dr Ahti Karjalainen was dismissed from the Finnish Chairmanship of the Standing Fenno-Soviet Economic Commission.


In connection with the peace happening "The Spring of Peace and Hope” people formed a chain from the Finlandia House to the embassies of different CSCE countries. The embassies were handed a message opposing the stationing of new nuclear and cruise missiles in Europe and making an appeal for a Nordic nuclear-weapon-tree zone. According to the organizers some 30,000 people participated, but the estimate made by the police was as low as 15,000.


The Fenno-Soviet Economic Joint Commission convened in Moscow. The Finnish delegations was headed by Minister Jermu Laine, the temporary Finnish Chairman and the Soviet one by the Soviet Chairman, Minister of Foreign Trade Nikolai Patolichev and Deputy Minister A.N. Manzhulo. The Commission discussed means of balancing the trade, which is in favour of Finland.


The President's Office announced that the Fenno-Soviet FCMA Treaty will be prolonged during President Koivisto's visit to the Soviet Union at the beginning of June.


The Chairman of the Finnish UN Association, Raimo Väyrynen, and the Secretary General of the Association, Hilkka Pietilä, visited Moscow and Leningrad as guests of the Soviet UN League and discussed development of cooperation between the Finnish and the Soviet UN League.


According to the FCP party commission it is significant that the FCMA Treaty will be prolonged during President Koivisto's visit to the Soviet Union. The Treaty is relevant in all its parts, is in the interests of both nations and contributes to the security of our continent.


The Finnish development aid was 696 million FIM in 1982, of which 60 % or 415 million was spent in bilateral aid: most in Tanzania, 77 millions, and least in Sri Lanka, 16 million. The share of multilateral aid, 281 million FIM, was given through international organizations.


A seminar of North European centre and liberal parties was held in Espoo. It was organized by the Friedrich Naumann Foundation of the Free Democrats of the FRG.


The President appointed Rolf Kullberg Governor of the Bank of Finland.


President Koivisto gave a statement on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of President Kekkonen's plan for a Nordic nuclear- weapon-free zone. According to President Koivisto, the security political situation in the Nordic area is stable because of its nuclear-weapon-free status. However, this requires permanent confirmation and recognition from the nuclear powers; the basic idea of the proposal has become more and more urgent lately. President Koivisto thought it positive that there has been discussion of the NWFZ also in the other Nordic countries in recent years. (Nuclear Weapons and Northern Europe, p. 82).

Tass published President Koivisto's interview before his official visit to the Soviet Union. The President thought the visit significant because of the prolonging of the FCMA Treaty, which shows that no fluctuations in the international situation can affect the Fenno-Soviet cooperation. According to him, economic cooperation, like the one between Finland and the Soviet Union, is the best form of good neighbourly relations.


Representatives of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) and the Finnish Employers' Confederation (STK) participated in the 69th ILO Labour Conference in Geneva.


The Paasikivi Society organized a meeting on the 20th anniversary of President Kekkonen's proposal for a Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone. Prime Minister Olof Palme from Sweden gave a talk on "Security and Stability in the Nordic Area” ("Nuclear Weapons and Northern Europe, Hki 1983). Mr Palme met President Mauno Koivisto and Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa.


A delegation of the Metalworkers' Federation participated in a meeting of the European Confederation of Metalworkers' Federations in Naples.


The Finnish Institute of International Affairs arranged a seminar on the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ). The participants were researchers from Finland, the Nordic and four other European countries, the Soviet Union, and the United States. The seminar discussed NWFZ proposals both from the Eastern and Western and from the Nordic point of view and the international security and military political issues connected with the NWFZ. The reports and background material are published in Nuclear Weapons and Northern Europe published by the Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 1983.


The SDP Party Secretary, Seppo Kääriäinen headed a delegation which visited the German Democratic Republic at the invitation of the GDR Democratic Peasants' Party.


According to a statement published by the FCP Central Committee, President Koivisto's visit to the Soviet Union will strengthen the Fenno-Soviet relations based on trust.


President and Mrs Mauno Koivisto paid an official visit to the Soviet Union. The document prolonging the Fenno-Soviet FCMA Treaty until 2003 was signed by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen and Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko on the first day of the visit. The President was also accompanied by Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa and Minister of Foreign Trade Jermu Laine, who is the Vice Chairman of the Economic Cooperation Commission, Chairmen of the four biggest parties, representatives of the Finnish business and high officials. Foreign Ministers Jermu Lame and Nikolai Patolichev signed a Fenno-Soviet protocol on agriculture and food stuffs for 1984—90. According to statement published after the visit the FCMA Treaty will guarantee the continuity of Fenno-Soviet political and economic relations and will for its part contribute to the stable security political situation in the North of Europe. Both countries express their concern on increasing international tensions and the increasing possibility of a nuclear conflict.


The Chairman of the Metal- workers' Union, Sulo Penttilä, participated in the 90th anniversary congress of the IMF in Zurich.


Finland presented orally to the Japanese State Department her disapproval of the statement made by Prime Minister Jasuhiro Nakasone on Finland's status. Prime Minister Nakasone had demanded in a campaign speech that Japan increase her defence spending, for otherwise Japan could find herself in the same situation as Finland, which, according to Nakasone, is at the mercy of the Soviet Union.

The Finnish Government appealed to the South African Government on behalf of three members of the African National Congress who had been condemned to death.


A delegation of Keidanren, the League of Japanese Industries, visited Helsinki at the invitation of the Federation of Finnish Industry.


The Ministry of Foreign Affairs appropriated 30 million for development aid; Tanzania received the most, 8 million, for continuing the study on the Kahama gold mine project.


The Cabinet made a decision according to which Finland will participate in the development of the Tele-X satellite. Finland's share of the costs is 3—5 % or 30—50 million FIM during five years. It was also decided that Finland will participate in the Nordsat satellite project.


A seminar on Finnish development aid was held in Espoo. The theme was "What Kind of Development with Finnish Aid?”. It was attended by representatives of political parties, researchers and the media, non-governmental organizations and administration. In his address at the opening of the seminar, Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that line followed by Finland, i.e. to concentrate development aid on few projects is a good one. According to him, Finland should pay more attention to the follow-up and to consider increasing the share of agriculture. We should also make sure that the development aid given to a country promotes economic, social and political equality.


In an interview for the daily Helsingin Sanomat, President Koivisto said that the discussion on possible introduction of nuclear weapons into Finnish territory has obtained undesirable forms, and too far-reaching conclusions have been made. As regards foreign policy discussion, it is important to analyze different possibilities, but aspirations influence policies by discussion are not justified, according to President Koivisto.


Representatives of 132 countries participated in an international peace conference in Prague. Finland was represented by members of the Peace Committee of Finland and the Committee of the Hundred, representatives of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK), the Workers' Athletic Union, and Speaker Erkki Pystynen and Minister Vappu Taipale. The official Finnish address was given by Pirkko Työläjärvi, the First Deputy Speaker of Parliament. She discussed the possibilities of the Conference of Security and Cooperation in Europe to recreate an atmosphere of confidence in Europe. Matti Kekkonen was elected one of the Vice Chairmen of the World Peace Council.

The Nordic Council of Ministers discussed the Nordsat project in Reykjavik. The Finnish representative was Gunnarsjf3rkstrand, Minister at the Ministry of Education.


Finland and the other N+N States gave her support to the draft final document presented by the Spanish Prime Minister Felipe G 0 n - z a i e z at the Madrid follow-up meeting aimed at securing the continuity of the CSCE process, but did not take a stand as to the details of the draft.


The Nordic countries made a joint proposal in the UN for the strengthening of the status of the UN. In a report addressed to the Secretary General they recommend that the Security Council procedures be developed, the Secretary General be given more support, the Peacekeeping Forces be fortified and an emergency force be established. The report is based on the resolution passed by the Council of the Nordic Foreign Ministers in August.

According to an agreement signed, the Fenno-Soviet trade is to be balanced by oil purchases to the value of over 200 million FIM so that by the end of the year the balance of the clearing account is within the credit limit of 300 million agreed on. 20.—23.9. The preparations for the Fenno-Soviet protocol of goods exchange were begun by a working group of the Joint Commission in Helsinki. The preparations for the frame agreement of the five-year period of 1986—90 are being under negotiated. Both negotiations aim at an increase in Finnish imports from the Soviet Union in order to maintain the present level of the trade. The Soviet delegation was headed by Minister Manzhub.


Representatives of the Finnish Salaried Employees' Confederation (TVK) and the Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) participated in the 13th Congress of the International Federation of Free Trade Unions in Oslo.


Finland participated in the UN Disarmament Committee in Geneva as an observer. In addressing the Committee, the Finnish representative stressed the fact that the primary responsibility for the prevention of a nuclear war, for solving disarmament questions and for keeping alive disarmament discussion lies with the great powers.


A Party Leader Conference of the European Democratic Union was held in London. A delegation of the Coalition Party headed by Chairman Ilkka Suominen, and representatives of the Swedish People's Party of Finland participated in the Conference.


A party secretary conference was organized by the Nordic Council in Torshav, in the Faeroe Islands. Representatives of 33 different parties from all the Nordic countries discussed cooperation between parties and regional cooperation in the Nordic area.


The fourth Fenno-Soviet Youth Friendship Festival was held in the Soviet Union. The Finnish delegation consisted of representatives of 44 youth organizations.


The eight conference of EFTA parliamentarians was held in Helsinki. In his address the Finnish representative, Minister Jermu Laine, emphasized the positive significance of the EFTA cooperation for Finland. The Conference dealt with international economic and employment problems and the relations of EFTA with other international economic organizations.


A report made at the development Cooperation Section of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs was submitted to Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen. According to the report, Finland could raise the share of agriculture in development cooperation to 20%by 1988.


A Nordic summer camp organized by the Peace Union of Finland was held in Pietarsaari.


The periodical Ydin published a letter sent to the Student Union of the University of Turku by Ambassador Keijo Korhonen, a former chairman of the Board of the Student Union. In his letter Ambassador Korhonen expressed his negative view of a statement published by the present Board on the predicament of conscientious objectors who want to do non-combatant military service. According to the Ambassador conscientious objectors and their defenders are not fit to take the responsibility for the future of our country. The publication of the letter gave rise to a two-month long debate in the press. Helsingin Sanomat, for instance, received 225 letters to the editor on the issue, 75 of them were published.

A frame agreement on fishing was signed between Finland and the EC in Brussels. According to the agreement, the parties can fish inside one another's fishing zones.


The Cabinet "Night School” made a decision to appoint a Foreign Ministry committee on developing Finnish foodstuff aid. The study should be based on the needs of the developing countries, possibilities offered by Finnish agriculture and finance policy aspects; its purpose is to ascertain possible amount of the aid, selection of produces and means of transportation.


The 68th meeting of the OPEC ministers convened in Helsinki. Thirteen ministers from different OPEC countries participated. Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa said in the opening ceremony that stable oil prices are in the long run in the interests of both producers and consumers.


A conference of European centre, liberal and agrarian parties was held in Helsinki to prepare the CSCE meeting of autumn 1984.


Lt-Gen. Jaakko Valtanen, Chief of the General Headquarters, was appointed new Commanding General of the Defence Forces. He resumed his new duties on October12 when his predecessor, Gen. Lauri Sutela retired. Lt-Gen. Valtanen said that the minimum level suggested by the Third Parliamentary Defence Committee has almost been attained. This cannot, however, be considered as build-up. The state of the Defence Force is excellent, according to the General, for, in spite of the political confrontations existing in different walks of life, all quarters have a realistic view of Finnish defence needs.


The Ministry for Foreign Affairs commented on the unofficial information received by the Svenska Dagbladet about a plan for a Nordic nuclear weapon-free zone made by the Swedish Foreign Ministry. According to the Finnish Foreign Ministry, there is no ground for negotiations despite the growing support to the ides, but they hoped that the information published will advance the idea of the NWFZ.

A decision to conclude diplomatic relations with Kap Verde, which became independent in 1975.


The Committee of the Hundred celebrated its 20th anniversary. The theme for 1983 was "Weapon-Free World — Finland Can Be the First”. The Committee published a statement calling for a reappraisal of Finnish security policy and for initiating the disarmament process. The fact that Finland is nuclear-weapon-free should be stated in the Constitution, arms exports should be abolished and the Finnish armament spending should be frozen on the present level starting from 1984.


The Third Nordic Peace March was made from Helsinki to Washington, D.C. 23 women from Finland were among the marchers, who demanded repeal of the Euromissile decision.


The five Nordic Prime Ministers convened in a cooperation meeting in Helsinki to discuss the countries' views of the proposed Nordic NWFZ. Finland and Sweden said that the project would profit also the whole Europe; Denmark and Norway would connect the issue with the wider context of the Geneva talks. As regards the development of economic cooperation, it was decided to establish a new cooperation organ composed of representatives all Nordic industrial circles.


President Koivisto granted an interview to the Swedish Television in which he said that the interest in the Nordic NWFZ has grown lately, but that is not enough for implementing the plan. What is important is that the Swedish position was more on the lines proposed by Finland.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa said in an interview for the daily Keskisuomalainen that he supported the idea of limiting presidency to two terms of office. According to him, the so called Hallberg Committee proposal for a new electoral system may be the best solution. Citizens would vote directly for presidential candidates and at the same time choose the presidential electors, who elect the president, if no one of presidential candidates reach the absolute majority.


Ydin published a résumé of the reactions to Ambassador Korhonen’s letter of July 6. Its purpose was to give an overall picture of the attitude toward conscientious objectors’ military service on the basis of what had been written by columnists and in the published letters to the editor. The extremes were an absolute condemnation and a whole-hearted acceptance and endorsement. The most common view was to support non-combatant service in the case of "real conviction” but to consider armed service as the primary alternative. According to Ydin, attitudes towards conscientious objectors are somewhat more favourable than in the late 1960s.


Representatives of the FPDL headed by Chairman Kivistö presented Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen with a memorandum demanding that Finland support all measures directed towards securing Nicaraguan independence and preventing intervention in Central America.

The TALKE Commission handed to Foreign Minister Väyrynen a statement proposing that development aid be raised to 0.44 % of the GNP in 1984. The proposed increase would mean an appropriation of 12.500 million FIM to development aid.


The seventh Fenno-Soviet friendship-town meeting was held in Yaroslav. The participants represented the Finnish Union of Towns, Finland-Soviet Union Society and friendship towns. The delegation was headed by Councillor of State Martti Miettunen and Mayor Raimo Ilaskivi, Chairman of the Friendship-Town Union. The theme of the meeting was the role of the friendship towns in Fenno-Soviet economic, scientific and technological cooperation.


According to Foreign Minister Väyrynen, Finnish development cooperation in 1983 was behind schedule made out. According to it, Finland was to raise her development aid to 0.7 % of the GNP by 1988. Minister Väyrynen said that two annual rises should be included in the budget in order to keep up with the schedule. He also said that follow-up and preparations should be made more efficient to eliminate such problems as have come up in the implementation of plans.


The Nordic Council published an opinion poll on Nordic views of bilateral cooperation. In Finland, the interviewees considered cooperation with the Soviet Union as the most important, the next came Sweden and the other Nordic countries.


President Yuri Andropov sent President Koivisto a letter expounding the Soviet views of disarmament. A similar letter was sent to other European Heads of State.


The four biggest parties and some civic organizations called loran increased political and humanitarian aid to the Namibian freedom organization Swapo on the Namibian freedom fight day, September 3.

According to a statement published by the FCP political commission, the boycott against the Soviet Union is in conflict with Finland's basic foreign political line based on pacts, and demanded that the Council of State take action towards cancellation of the boycott.

The Finnish address at the UN Palestinian Session in Geneva was given by Finland's Permanent Representative, Mr Keijo Korhonen. He said that a solution in the Middle East question should be based on the UN Security Council resolutions on the matter. It is important to cooperate with the Palestinians when endeavouring to secure peace in the area. The Finnish Government called upon every party to secure Lebanon's territorial integrity and sovereignty.

The Percentage Movement criticized the Government for freezing the development aid on the level of 1983 in the 1984 budget proposal. The freeze would mean relinquishing the objectives set by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, according to which the aid should reach the goal of 0.7 % of GNP in 1988.


The Nordic Prime Ministers held their annual autumn meeting in Stockholm. The Prime Ministers issued a statement deploring the shooting down of the South Korean plane. They did not, however, think that the incident necessitated any measures to be taken against the Soviet Union. The statement published after the meeting dealt with issues the five countries will take up at the next UN General Assembly.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen attended the meeting of the CSCE foreign ministers. In his address he expressed his contentment with the balanced results achieved at the Madrid meeting despite increased international tensions. Minister Väyrynen considered the decision to hold a disarmament conference in Stockholm as an indication of the political will of the participants and of their commitment to the goals of detente.


A Fenno-Albanian programme for exchange in the fields of culture and science for 1983—85 was signed.


Finland and Mozambique signed a 52 million FIM contract on developing the Nacala Container Terminal situated in the North of Mozambique. This project is one of the largest in Finnish development aid.


The representative council of the Finnish Civil Pilots' Union made a decision to participate in the two- week boycott on flights to Moscow in accordance with the IFALPA recommendation made because of the shooting-down of the South Korean plane in the vicinity of the Sahalin Island.


Gunnar Korhonen, Managing Director of Finnair, did not consider the boycott undertaken by the civil pilots a justified measure.


The Association of Finnish Flight Tower Officials announced that they will not join the boycott against Aeroflot. According to the association the boycott will not enhance flight security.


Nordiskt Fredsforum (The Nordic Peace Forum) organized a Nordic peace and disarmament conference in Stockholm. The Finnish delegation consisted of representatives of the Peace Union of Finland and the Finnish UN League.


Minister of Communications Matti Puhakka appealed on behalf of the Finnish Government to the Union of Air Traffic to abstain from boycotting Aeroflot planes. The Union had planned to make a decision on ground staff's boycott on September 18.


The Ground Staff Section of the Union of Air Traffic decided not to join in the boycott. According to their decision the boycott would be interpreted as a political stand because of the great power involvement.


A joint seminar of the Finnish CP and the CPSU on international affairs was held in Moscow.


In an interview for the Centre Party organ Suomenmaa, Minister of Finance Ahti Pekkala presented his view of the prospects of Finnish foreign policy: its management requires continuous active effort. Recent debate has shown signs of laxness. In the same interview he said that the civil pilots' decision to boycott flights to Moscow was too hastily taken.


The Cabinet submitted ifs proposal for the 1984 budget to Parliament. The total of the budget was 84.500 million FIM. The Foreign Ministry main class was 1548 million FIM (1.8 %), of which 1128 million FIM will be appropriated to development cooperation (0.40 %of the GNP). The Defence Ministry main class was 4295 million FIM, which constitutes 5.1 % of the whole budget.


The FPDL parliamentary group suggested that Finland not participate in the IPU meeting in Seoul, South Korea. The FPDL members of the PU group announced that they would not take part in the meeting.

A committee was appointed to find out ways of developing Finnish foodstuff aid. The Committee is to make reports and recommendations on the amount of the aid, selection of produces and means of transportation.


President and Mrs Koivisto paid an official visit to the United States. They were accompanied by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen and representatives of Finnish industry. The President met President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George B us h. On September 29 President Koivisto addressed the 37th General Assembly in New York; he also met Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar and many heads of state. President Reagan said that the U.S.A. supports Finnish neutrality. The Presidents also discussed the Stockholm disarmament conference, the situation in the CSCE process and the Geneva disarmament talks. Koivisto gave Reagan a report on the Finnish proposal for a Nordic NWFZ. In his address at the UN Koivisto emphasized the importance of strengthening the position of the Organization, which would be in the interests of both small and great Member States. A special responsibility for the UN activity lies with the permanent members of the Security Council. Finland has agreed not to acquire nuclear weapons and will not allow them to be introduced onto her territory.


The Finnish Commission for the Promotion of Security in Europe (STETE) organized a meeting of the Nordic work group. The meeting was attended by representatives of parties, trade unions and non-governmental organizations. It was decided to continue the activity and the set object were to organize a NWFZ conference in autumn 1984 and draw up a political document on the NWFZ.


Jorma Hentilä said in a speech he gave in Taavetti that there are such industry and transportation lines in Finland as could be targets of a nuclear attack. Hentilä referred to statements according to which lack of defence capability could reduce Finland to an area of stationing and transit. Behind such ideas may be aspirations of introducing nuclear weapons into Finland or to transport them through our territory, Hentilä said.


The Coalition Party organized an economic seminar of the Nordic Conservative and moderate parties in Helsinki. Delegations from the Swedish Moderate Coalition Party, Norwegian Hoyre and Danish Conservative People's Party attended the seminar.


The Finnish Civil Pilots decided to resume flights to Moscow on October 3 in accordance with a recommendation made by IFALPA, which is their umbrella organization.


Representatives of the Finnish UN Association attended the General Assembly of the WFUNA, and a seminar on "The Role of the UN and the Future” organized in connection with the Assembly.


The IPU convened in Seoul, South Korea. The Finnish delegation was headed by Mrs Jutta Zilliacus. The Finnish address was presented by Mr Juhani Tuomaala, Member of Parliament. He considered it significant that the Madrid CSCE follow-up had been successfully concluded and had agreed on a resolution to begin European disarmament talks in Stockholm at the beginning of 1984. The Finnish delegation published its own memorandum as a supplement to the resolution passed condemning the shooting- down of the South Korean aeroplane. According to the Finnish IPU group the guilt issue had not yet been solved.


The SDP announced its support to the appeal made by President Koivisto in the UN for accelerating disarmament and for banning use of nuclear weapons by international agreements.

The Finland-Soviet Union Society elected Erkki Kivimäki Secretary General.

The Council of State made a decision on the continuation of bilateral development aid for 1984—86. The recipient countries are the same as before. The appropriations were: 650 million FIM in 1984, 667 million in 1985 and 722 million in 1986.

A Fenno-Soviet agreement on the division of areas of responsibility in the Baltic was signed within the framework of the general agreement on maritime protection in the Baltic.


Delegations of the Centre Party and the Swedish People's Party of Finland (SPP) participated in the Liberal International in Stockholm. The SPP was elected a full member and the CP a member with observer status.


The SDP Party Commission gave its support to the opposition of the military regime in Chile and to actions aiming at the reintroduction of democracy in the country.


A meeting of the Fenno-Libyan Economic, Technological and Scientific Joint Commission was held in Tripoli. The Finnish delegation was led by Minister of Foreign trade Jermu Laine. The Commission discussed the possibility of Finnish participation in Libyan projects in planning and construction.


Dr Jan-Magnus Jansson gave a talk at a Paasikivi Society meeting in Pori. According to Dr Jansson, bilateral relations are gaining importance in the present deteriorating international situation. From this point of view, the recent recognition given to the Finnish foreign policy both by the West and the East is significant. The Euromissile issue has no bearing on the situation in the Nordic area even if tensions may temporarily increase. The "openness” the Nordic region leaves more room for new moves by the great powers than Central Europe.


A statement published by the FPDL League Board drew attention to the growth of peace movements, which is an indication of people's negative attitude towards disarmament. Finland should not pursue an artificial balancing between the great power interests but to renounce nuclear weapons and nuclear disarmament. The FPDL demands that Finland's nuclear-weapon-free status be written in the Constitution: then also criticized Finland's voting in the UN, where Finland voted blank in the vote on a ban on nuclear first use.

Gen. Jaakko Valtanen took over the position of Commander of the Finnish Defence Forces.


Gen. Jaakko Valtanen said at the Opening Ceremony of the 89th National Defence Course that the FCMA Treaty, now prolonged to 2003, and the traditional Nordic cooperation form a dependable basis for Finnish aspirations to stay outside a possible crisis. The present tensions in the international situation and the increased military action in adjacent areas have not affected the situation, Gen.Valtanen said.


A security and cooperation conference of the European centre, liberal and agrarian parties was held in Helsinki, the hosts were the Finnish Centre, Liberal and Swedish People's Parties. Representatives from East and West European countries, from the Soviet Union and the United States attended the conference which dealt with security questions and questions of the use of human and economic resources.


A FPDL delegation headed by Chairman Kalevi Kivistö visited Rumania and Yugoslavia.


A FCP delegation visited Czechoslovakia and met leaders of the Communist Party Chairman Jouko Kajanoja met President Gustav Husák.


Docent Esko Antola of the University of Turku gave a talk on "Attitudes to Western European Peace Movements” at a Paasikivi Society discussion. According to Dr Antola, the new growing support to the peace movements is due to the decision to deploy Euromissiles. The West European movements not only fight their own governments but are also in conflict with corresponding movements in Eastern Europe by claiming that the great powers are equally guilty of the arms race. Antola predicted that Euromissiles will cause a change of direction in the peace movement activity and make find and offer new security policy alternatives on the basis of their own points of departure (Paasikivi Society mimeograph series no 39).


The Ministry for Foreign Affairs stated that Finland is prepared to give her support to the UN resolution banning the first use of nuclear weapons, if it is presented in the form it had in the summer 1982.

In an opinion poll made in October, 94 % of the respondents considered the Finnish foreign policy as well-managed and 3 % as ill-managed. Foreign policy was considered as suitably active by 73 %; 16 %wanted more decisive stands and 9 % were for more careful stands.


The UN Disarmament Week delegation published a statement calling for an agreement banning first-use of nuclear weapons. The Geneva Talks on middle-range missiles must come up with results in order to break the present armament spiral.


The Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA) arranged a seminar on "Finnish foreign policy in the Koivisto era”. Pertti Joenniemi said that President Koivisto had taken a clear stand both against nuclear weapons and on great power doctrinal issues in the speeches he gave during his visit to the U.S.A.; the opinions he expressed were those of judge rather than those of a doctor Erkki Tuomioja, Deputy Mayor of Helsinki, said that Finnish foreign policy follows too slavishly President Kekkonen's policy, which has led to a foreign political idling. Kari Möttölä, Director of the FIIA, said that the beginning of Koivisto's term of office has been characterized by a tension between expectations of continuity and expectations of change. Otherwise Koivisto has been on the same lines as Kekkonen was before the beginning of the era of detente.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen sent a greeting to the principal Seminar of the UN Disarmament Week stating the concern of the Finnish Government on the European security development, should the Geneva Talks fail, but the successful conclusion of the Madrid CSCE follow-up step in the right direction.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa, Swedish Foreign Minister Lennart Bodström and Alexander Bovin, Member of the Highest Soviet, attended as guests a disarmament conference organized by the Metalworkers' Federation Prime Minister Sorsa drew attention to the fact that Europe awaits concrete results from the Geneva disarmament talks. At the present stage of the talks, the parties should agree on an extension because results might not be attained within the present schedule. The Metalworkers' Federation published a report on arms production and possibilities for changing military production into civil production.


The preparatory meeting of the Stockholm disarmament conference was held in Helsinki. Delegations from 35 CSCE countries participated in the meeting and approved the agenda, schedule and other organizational issues of the first stage of the Stockholm meeting. The final document was largely based on a draft made by Finland and Sweden together.


The FCP political commission condemned the US attack into Grenada and demanded that foreign troops be withdrawn immediately.

Some 200,000 people participated in the UN Disarmament Week peace marches. 65,000 People marched in Helsinki. The marches were a protest against the arms race. Also Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa, Jouko Kajanoja, Chairman of the Finnish Communist Party, and leaders of the trade union movement participated in the march.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs published a communiqué demanding that foreign troops be withdrawn from Grenada and that Grenadian sovereignty be reinstated.


The Coalition Party organized a disarmament seminar on the occasion of the UN Disarmament Week.

According to the SDP, the US intervention in Grenada is in conflict with the principles of international law. They demanded that foreign troops be withdrawn immediately.


A petition signed by 184 members of Parliament was submitted to parliamentarians from the CSCE countries. The petition called upon these states to prevent the deployment of new nuclear weapons in Europe. The initiative for the petition was made by members of parliament who belong to the administrative organs of the Peace Committee of Finland.

Parliament passed unanimously the motion for prolonging the Fenno-Soviet FCMA Treaty by 20 years. In preceding discussion Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen and the parliamentary groups emphasized that the Treaty is the basis for Finland's good neighbourly relations and international status.


Prime Minister Sorsa attended a meeting of the Nordic SDP leaders in Stockholm.


The FPDL league council condemned the US attack into Grenada and demanded removal of the US troops from the country.


Finland was elected Member of the UN ECOSOC for a three-year period beginning in 1984. The ECOSOC is an umbrella organization for e.g. the Human Rights Commission and the Commission on Social Development.


The FCP political commission published a statement on the occasion of Foreign Minister Hans Dietrich Genscher's visit to Finland. The statement demanded that the Federal Republic of Germany take action against the introduction of Euromissiles.


Finland voted for a resolution calling for immediate withdrawal of foreign troops from Grenada and deploring the military intervention in the affairs of the country. The resolution was passed by 108 votes to 9.


Jaakko Kalela, Special Advisor to the President, gave a lecture on "Nuclear Weapons and Finnish Foreign Policy” at the 89th Defence Course. Mr Kalela said that the stands with regard to nuclear weapons which President Koivisto presented in New York and Los Angeles are a logical continuation of the nuclear weapon policy pursued by Finland since the early 1960s when President Kekkonen presented his idea of a Nordic NWFZ. According to Mr Kalela, President Koivisto touched upon the controversial doctrine of first use but did not take a stand in the doctrinal dispute existing within NATO, for instance.


President Koivisto, Speaker Pystynen, Prime Minister Sorsa and Ambassador Sobolev attended the 66th Anniversary celebrations of the October Revolution in Helsinki. 9.11. A co-Nordic seminar on "Woman and Development” was held in Hanasaari, near Helsinki. It constitutes part of the preparations for the Closing Conference of the UN Woman's Decade in Nairobi in 1985.


An amendment in the Long-Term Trade Agreement and in the Technological, Economic and Scientific Agreement was signed between Finland and the German Democratic Republic.


Mr Kalela expounded his statement about President Koivisto‘s speeches. Mr Kalela said that the President had taken a stand for the banning of "the use of nuclear weapons in all their forms”. This naturally also includes the first-use of nuclear weapons.

Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen gave his reply to a question put by Tuure Junnila, M.P. on Finland's voting for the Grenada Resolution. According to Mr Junnila this vote was not in accordance with the voting line Finland usually follows in the UN, having abstained in corresponding votes previously. According to Minister Väyrynen, the Grenada vote did not create a great power and alliance opposition, and thus, any clear great power conflict. He said that this did not constitute a deviation from earlier voting or from our policy of neutrality.


In an interview for Trud, the organ of the Soviet Trade Union Central Committee VZSPS, Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa said that the Geneva talks on limiting European nuclear weapons should create a basis for continuing such negotiations. One solution would be to combine the talks on the limitation of strategic nuclear weapons and the talks on middle-range missiles; this would allow consideration of all factors affecting European nuclear balance. As regards the Stockholm disarmament talks, Finland will work for such agreements as consolidate common European security, although the Stockholm conference is not intended as concrete talks on arms reduction.


The SI Disarmament Council meeting in Helsinki was chaired by Kalevi Sorsa. The meeting drew up a document on Euromissiles for the next SI delegate conference.


President and Mrs Koivisto paid an official visit to France. They were accompanied by Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen. President Koivisto had discussions with President François Mitterrand on the situation in Europe of which they both had a pessimistic view because of the deadlock in the Geneva Euromissile talks and because of the future deployment of the missiles. Foreign Minister Väyrynen discussed nuclear plant cooperation and economic cooperation between the EC and EFTA countries with the French Minister of Foreign Trade Edith Cresson.


A joint conference of the Nordic Communist Parties was held in Copenhagen. The conference published a statement demanding last- minute measures towards preventing the deployment of Euro- and cruise missiles in Europe. The stationing of these warheads would draw the Nordic area into the sphere of military tension.


The Finnish trade union organizations SAK, TVK, Akava and STTK and the Soviet Central Federation of Trade Unions VZSPS held a joint seminar on economic cooperation in Hyvinkää.


Percentage Movement action groups appealed to all Members of Parliament to use their influence to increase the development cooperation appropriations to at least 0.4 °/o of the GNP in the 1984 budget. The Movement referred to statements made by seven parties, which all supported this goal.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen said at the Paasikivi Society in Rovaniemi that the cruise missiles presently under development constitute a threat also to Finland, and we are going to prepare ourselves for such an eventuality. Finland should have a credible capacity to defend our territory and this requires continuity and consistency of action.

The Finnish Government announced that it will not recognize the state declared by the Turkish population in Cyprus. The Cyprian situation should be solved in accordance with the guidelines given by the UN Security Council, which presupposes that Cyprus remain undivided.


According to the Swedish news agency TT, President Koivisto had sent some 30 editors-in- chief a letter dealing with the President's views of the accurateness necessary for discussing foreign policy. In the letter, which was not meant for publication, the President also said that the media should give their support to the foreign policy leadership. Heikki Tikkanen, editor-in- chief of Helsingin Sanomat, thought it quite natural that political leaders let the editors-in-chief know what they think of the writing and contents of the media; this was only one example of such activity.

President Mauno Koivisto appointed Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa Chairman of the Finnish party in the Permanent Finnish-Soviet Intergovernmental Commission for Economic Co-operation. The Deputy Chairmen are Minister of Finance Ahti Pekkala and Minister of Foreign Trade Jermu Laine. The appointments are in force until the end of the term of office of the fourth Sorsa Cabinet, after that the chairman and deputy chairmen will be elected in accordance with the statute on the Joint Commission.


Minister of Defence Veikko Pihlajamäki said at the Opening Ceremony of the 90th National Defence Course that it is possible that the bills providing for the eventuality of exceptional conditions may be introduced in Parliament during 1984. The bills are based on the report of the Parliamentary Committee on the legislation on preparedness.

Finland and Zambia signed a development cooperation programme for 1984—86. The appropriation of 195 million FIM to be used in developing agriculture, forestry, transportation and education.


Finland voted in the UN General Assembly First Committee for a resolution calling upon the nuclear- weapon states to abstain from first- use of nuclear weapons.

Finland abstained at the UN General Assembly, when a resolution calling for withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan was proposed. The Resolution was accepted by 116 votes to 20, with 17 abstentions.

The Finnish Government made an official offer on the establishment of the Wider Institute in Finland. The Institute is an independent institution connected with the UN University.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa participated in the Socialist International in Brussels. In his address he said that the attempts to prevent the introduction of Euromissiles into Europe has had been unsuccessful. Therefore the Stockholm conference will have a special importance in the endeavours of breaking the armament spiral. Prime Minister Sorsa reiterated his proposal for a meeting of European non-nuclear states to discuss questions of European security policy. On November 23 the SDP published a statement appealing to the participants of the Brussels meeting to secure continuing negotiations on Euromissiles. This would be possible by abstaining from stationing, further missiles.


According to the daily Keskisuomalainen, Deputy-Speaker Mikko Pesälä has said that the cruise missiles stationed in Western Europe will change Finland's security political position radically, and this presupposes increased defence spending. The situation has no effect on Finland's foreign policy but the idea of a Nordic NWFZ must be abandoned because of these missiles.


President Mauno Koivisto was 60 years old. The celebrations were attended by a Soviet delegation headed by Vice President Vasili Kuznetsov. The President was awarded the highest Soviet decoration, the Lenin medal. Representatives of the Royal Houses and Governments of Scandinavian countries presented their countries' congratulations. In an interview for Finnish news agency President Koivisto said that the stationing of Euromissiles will increase international tensions, but he considered it positive that the Madrid CSCE follow-up could be concluded successfully and that the Helsinki preparations for the Stockholm disarmament meeting were also successful.

A plan for the cooperation of Finland-Soviet Union Society, the League of Soviet Friendship Societies and the Soviet Union-Finland Society was signed for 1984—85.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen considered Deputy-speaker Pesälä's opinions about abandoning the idea a Nordic NWFZ premature and strange. According to Minister Väyrynen, people in high official positions should remember their responsibilities in foreign policy discussion.


The Paasikivi Society celebrated its 25th anniversary. Mr Jan-Magnus Jansson was re-elected Chairman. Minister Pekka Kuusi and Director Mikko Immonen were elected vice chairmen. In his address on behalf of the State Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa said that a lively debate is the precondition of successful foreign policy. According to the Prime Minister, the Paasikivi Society is a vital factor in promoting such a debate. The Society invited President Koivisto for Honorary Member.


Mr Pesälä considered his views of the NWFZ as justified, although Foreign Minister Väyrynen did not consider them so or in accordance with the Finnish foreign policy line.


Preparatory negotiations on goods exchange between Finland and the Soviet Union were held in Helsinki. The Soviet delegation was headed by Minister Manzhulo, who also took part in the preparations for the December meeting of the Economic Commission and in the planning of the frame agreement covering the next five-year period 1986—90.


Foreign Minister Väyrynen said that there is no need for Finland to increase defence acquisitions because of the stationing of Euromissiles. In a speech he gave at a lunch with political journalists he said that the new situation can be managed within the limits of the proposed budget. Instead of increasing armament, we should increase our political activity, e.g. for implementing a Nordic NWFZ.

The protocol on the prolongation of the Fenno-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Aid came into force after Foreign Minister Väyrynen and the Soviet Ambassador in Finland V.M. Sobolev exchanged the ratification documents. In their short addresses both discussed the smooth functioning of the Treaty during the past 35 years and the stabilizing effect it has had in the North of Europe.

The Finnish UN Ambassador Keijo Korhonen said in his address at the UN General Assembly that Finland is confident that the Namibian question can be solved by negotiations. But Finland does not accept making the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola a condition for Namibian independence.

Finland announced in the UN General Assembly Session on the Antarctic her intention of joining the Antarctic Agreement of 1959, which froze all territorial claims regarding the Antarctic. The area was proclaimed demilitarized and the agreement gave guarantees of the freedom for scientific research in the Antarctic.


The delegate congress of the Finland-Soviet Union Society was held in Helsinki. Martti Miettunen will continue as chairman. President Koivisto was invited to be Honorary Chairman. The delegates discussed the development of the Society to attract young people into the sphere of its activity, Fenno-Soviet economic cooperation and how to promote knowledge about the Soviet Union.


Under-Secretary of State Åke Wihtol said in a speech he gave at the Finland-Soviet Union Society annual meeting that Fenno-Soviet trade will continue on the same level of 37,000 million FIM in 1984 but it is important to increase imports to Finland in order to maintain the trade balance.


The Board of Commissioners for the UN University made a decision of the establishment of the Wider Institute in Helsinki. It is an institution aiming at promoting research, education and information in order to find new means of international economic cooperation and management. The Institute is to be called the World Institute for Developing Economics Research, or Wider.


The Ministry of Defence appointed a commission to prepare a total revision of the statutes relating to the securing of territorial integrity. The new set of regulations should be ready by the end of 1985.

The Finland's address at the UN General Assembly Session on the Middle East situation Ambassador Keijo K or h one n drew attention to the increasing violence in the area and to the violations of Lebanese sovereignty and territorial integrity.


The Economic Committee of the Nordic Council and the Nordic Ministers of Finance convened in Helsinki. In a joint meeting they discussed economic development both in the five countries and in the area as a whole as well as completion of the programme for achieving full employment in the area.


Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee published its memorandum on the Cabinet's annual report for 1982. The Committee gave its support to the Swedish proposal for creating a nuclear-weapon-free corridor in Central Europe and to a proposal for a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Balkans. According to the Committee, Fenno-Soviet economic cooperation should be increased in the fields of energy and industrial commodity production, and development cooperation funds should be directed towards helping the least developed countries more than before.

A decision to conclude diplomatic relations with the Dominican Republic


Professori Osmo Apunen gave his view of General V. Tatarnikov's opinions on a Nordic NWFZ. (Tatarnikov had stated that the Soviet Union is prepared to take measures in connection with the establishment of the zone both in areas bordering Finland and in the whole Baltic region.) According to Professor Apunen, this clarifies the situation with regard to the NWFZ end shows that the Soviet Union is prepared to discuss issues raised by the Nordic countries.


Minister Jermu Laine headed a delegation which participated in negotiations on the goods exchange protocol of the Fenno-Soviet trade. Minister Laine and Minister Patolichev signed the protocol on December 15. The level of the trade will remain the same as in 1983 (37,000 million FIM). The trade was balanced by increased Finnish purchases from the Soviet Union. 47 per cent of the Finnish exports consist of metal industry products. The decrease in Finnish construction exports was covered by an increase in other exports. Soviet imports to Finland were augmented by increasing the imports of oil, coal, chemicals and timber.


Delegations of SAK, TVK, STTK and AKAVA participated in the meeting of the standing negotiating board of the Finnish trade unions and the Soviet VZSPS. A protocol of cooperation for 1984—85 was signed. In a joint statement the organizations announced that they will strive to develop cooperation with European and international trade union movements. They also expressed their concern on the increasing tensions in the international relations and on the deteriorating security political situation.


Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen paid an official visit to the Soviet Union where he met Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. Their discussions revealed both parties' concern on the deterioration of the great power relations and the current difficulties in the Geneva talks. On the other hand, the Foreign Ministers considered if positive that the Madrid follow-up could be concluded and expressed their hope that the Stockholm conference on European disarmament, beginning in January 1984, can reach concrete results. The Soviet Union considers it possible that the idea of a Nordic NWFZ is feasible and that the issue is more and more actual. The Foreign Ministers said that the Fenno-Soviet relations will continue as unproblematic as before because the FCMA treaty functions well.


Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa and Minister Ahti Pekkala attended the 28th session of the Fenno-Soviet Economic Joint Commission. The Chairmen of the Commission, Prime Minister Sorsa and Minister Patolichev, signed a protocol on the trade in 1986—90. The protocol aims at keeping the level of the Fenno-Soviet trade on the present level, 190,000 Million FIM, or 25,000 rubles. Imports to Finland will be increased by purchases of natural gas and forest, chemical and dye metallurgy. As regards cooperative projects in the Soviet Union, the parties discussed construction of the Tallinn part, cooperation in paper and cellulose industry and modernization of the Pechengo Nickel Concentration Plant. Also possible cooperation in third countries was discussed.


Parliament passed a bill on the Finnish participation in the Nordic Tele-X preparations.


In a press conference organized at the end of the 38th UN Session Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen gave a report on the Finnish position regarding a ban on the first-use of nuclear weapons, the proposal made by Finland for convening a conference to negotiate global economic problems under the auspices of the UN and the stand taken by Finland with regard to the crises in Middle East, Southern Africa and Central America.


The Finnish Portal Group and EKE Concern got the contract for the construction of the cereal port and meat and fruit port in the Tallinn Harbour.